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University Bulletin: Graduate Programs The George Washington University  



Professors I.C. Rotberg (Research), M.H. Futrell, W.K. Cummings, E. El-Khawas, R. Whitaker, N.B. Paley, M.J. Feuer

Associate Professors C.B. Stapp, J. Gomez, Y. Nakib, R.A. Chernak, M.D. Corry, M. Kim, J.H. Williams, L. Lemasters, R.R. Watkins, N.B. Milman, S.A. Dannels (Chair), S. Ehrmann, J. Choi, A.A. Tekleselassie, P.H. Stevenson

Assistant Professors S. Swayze, R.C. Jakeman, P. Ehrensal, L.C. Howard, L.C. Engel, J.E. Johnson, J.K. Clayton, K.A. Sherrill, B.A. Weiss, L. Garces, L. Malcom-Piqueux

Lecturers L. Lent, A.J. Collins

See the Graduate School of Education and Human Development for programs of study leading to the degrees of Master of Arts in Education and Human Development, Master of Education, Master of Arts in Teaching, Education Specialist, and Doctor of Education.

6100 Special Topics (arr.) Staff
  Topic to be announced in the Schedule of Classes. May be repeated for credit provided the topic differs.
6101 Research and Independent Study (1 to 3) Staff
  Individual research under guidance of a staff member. Program and conferences arranged with an instructor. (Academic year)
6114 Introduction to Quantitative Research (3) Staff
  Development of a conceptual understanding of research design and quantitative analysis options for the consumer of research. Appropriate use of vocabulary and interpretation of research findings. Critique of research articles and/or development of a small-scale proposal. (Fall, spring, and summer)
6116 Introduction to Educational Statistics (3) Dannels, Choi, Swayze, Weiss
  Fundamentals of descriptive statistics and hypothesis testing; introduction to inferential statistics and research design, distinguishing between nonexperimental, quasi-experimental, and true experimental designs. Designed for those with little preparation in quantitative methods or who are not prepared for Educ 8120.
6232 Supervision and Evaluation of Instruction (3) Clayton
  The roles and functions of educational leaders in the areas of curriculum, staff development, instructional supervision, and evaluation of personnel. Theory and practice to increase teacher effectiveness and improve student learning through supervisory strategies.
6234 Site-Based Leadership: K-12 (3) Tekleselassie
  A general introduction to the principalship. Stresses leadership theory, roles, and management tasks in instruction, curriculum, budget, staff development, supervision, interagency services, student learning, and policy considerations. Site-based management and communication within a changing and diverse school environment.
6236 School Law and Policy (3) Ehrensal, Sherrill
  The legal basis of education and public schools in the United States. Constitutional provisions and federal statutes that guide school law. Legal factors that influence school policy. Consideration of practical school situations for legal implications, development of skills to research legal issues affecting schools, and preventive law measures.
6240 Fundamentals of Educational Leadership and the Change Process (3) Staff
  Current leadership theory and systems behavior in the context of administrative practice in educational settings. Key elements of leadership and management. The impact of context, culture, power, politics, change, communications, and organizational learning on administration.
6242 Administrative Issues in Education (3) Ehrensal and Staff
  The impact of major social, political, economic, and education issues on the role of school leaders and the delivery and quality of programs and services.
6244 School-Community Relations (3) Staff
  The purpose, scope, essential elements, and impact of a successful school- community relations program. Community power structures, the roles of policy and leadership, communication techniques for interacting with various audiences and the media, evaluation of public relations and marketing for educational institutions.
6246 Seminar: Applied Educational Administration (3 to 6) Lemasters
  Application of the theories and principles of administration to public and private schools. Field experience in a phase of administration and supervision. Admission by permission of instructor.
6252 Human Relations Diversity (3) Staff
  Application of current theory and research findings in human relations to staff motivation, change, conflict management, and communication techniques for working with individuals and groups within organizations.
6254 Supervision in the Elementary and Secondary School (3) Staff
  For experienced teachers and administrators. Legal and policy basis for personnel evaluation and supervisory practices. Review of modern supervisory concepts, including practices in schools. Prerequisite: Educ 6232.
6256 School Business Management (3) Staff
  Management and control of the business functions of school districts. Assessing, planning, developing, and presenting educational budgets; the legal contexts affecting school business management. Risk management and school-site budgeting.
6258 School Finance (3) Staff
  The financing of public elementary and secondary education in the United States; current revenue sources, distribution decisions, and trends in the fiscal operations of schools. Litigation, finance policies, and equitable investments of public monies.
6260 Practicum in Supervision (3 to 6) Staff
  Practical experience in supervision of instruction. Admission by permission of instructor. (Fall and spring)
6262 Internship in Supervision and Instructional Leadership (3 to 6) Staff
  Service in a school situation directed by the University's faculty and school systems; integration of theory and practice.
6264 Problems and Practices in Educational Administrative Organization (3 to 6) Staff
  Application of principles and practices concerned with change and evaluation of educational administration.
6287 Internship: Administration (3 to 6) Staff
  Service in an educational institution or education-related program directed by the University's faculty.
6314 History of American Education Reform (3) Futrell and Staff
  An examination of how evolving social, economic, and political forces have propelled and opposed American education reform efforts throughout history. (Fall)
6368 Leadership and Education (3) El-Khawas, Lemasters
  A general introduction to issues of leadership applicable to education settings and to key features of educational organization, including schools, school systems, colleges and universities, and advocacy organizations. Leadership as a process and set of skills. The interaction between leadership styles and organizational contexts.
6371 Education Policy (3) Nakib, Futrell, and Staff
  An introduction to the development, implementation, and evaluation of education policies at national, state, and local levels. (Fall and spring)
6381 Program Evaluation: Theory and Practice (3) Staff
  Introduction to the theory of social program evaluation, alternative evaluation models and methodologies, and the political and social contexts of evaluation.
6388 Analysis of Education Policy Issues (3) Rotberg, Nakib
  Covers a range of education policy options, assessing their advantages and disadvantages based on evidence, and drawing implications for policy formulation. A critical approach is applied to the assigned readings, questioning the sources of evidence, appropriateness of analysis, and validity of the findings. Prerequisite: Educ 6371, 6114, or permission of instructor. (Spring)
6392 Practicum in Educational Policy Program Evaluation (3 to 6) Staff
  Supervised practical experience in field placements. Admission by permission of instructor. Prerequisite: Educ 6381. (Fall, spring, and summer)
6401 Applying Educational Media and Technology (3) Corry
  Theory and practice of educational technology. Key characteristics of different media, principles of application, and issues concerning their appropriate use.
6402 Computers in Education and Human Development (3) Corry
  The research and practice surrounding the use of computers in educational and training settings. Students will acquire the practical knowledge necessary to the development and evaluation of computer-related curricula through projects and case studies.
6403 Educational Hardware Systems (3) Milman
  Design and implementation of educational hardware systems, including computers and computer networks.
6404 Managing Computer Applications (3) Staff
  For managers and prospective managers in education and human services who are concerned with the automation of their operations. Basic principles needed to design, implement, and manage an information system. Admission by permission of instructor. (Spring and summer)
6405 Developing Multimedia Materials (3) Milman
  The design, development, integration, and use of multimedia resources in education and training settings. Students examine and critique multimedia technologies, develop instructional materials, and create a unit or module that applies instructional design theory.
6406 Instructional Design (3) Corry
  Designing, implementing, and evaluating instructional strategies for learners. Assessing needs, writing objectives, selecting curriculum/content, selecting and implementing methods and techniques, selecting appropriate devices and evaluating instruction.
6407 Design and Implementation of Educational Software (3) Corry
  Theory and practice of creating educational software; psychological basis of using software in learning; instructional programs; authoring tools; artificial intelligence applications; interactive media. Students design and evaluate an educational program. Prerequisite: Educ 6401 or permission of instructor.
6421 Critical Issues in Distance Education (3) Staff
  Historical, conceptual, theoretical, and practical issues associated with distance education as a foundation for research and practice in the domain of distance education as well as adult learning, educational systems design, and school administration and policy.
6422 Instructional Needs Analysis (3) Watkins
  An introduction to the role of instructional needs analysis and assessment. The design and development of instruction. Key elements of the instructional design cycle, including data analysis.
6423 Technology and Disabilities (3) Staff
  Assistive technology as it impacts the lives of people with disabilities, including the performance of tasks related to employment, education, and activities of daily living.
6424 Learning Technologies and Organizations (3) Staff
  The role of learning technology in organizations, learning in the workplace, and knowledge management in corporations, schools, and universities.
6425 Developing Effective Training with Technology (3) Staff
  Development of skills in planning and producing effective technology-rich training that meets institutional and organizational needs.
6426 Computer Interface Design for Learning (3) Corry
  Human-computer interaction, both in general and with emphasis on issues in education. General design aspects; theories, principles, and guidelines related to human-computer interaction.
6427 Advanced Instructional Design (3) Watkins
  Development of a prototype instructional design project and documentation report requiring rapid design and development strategies.
6428 Developing Digital Professional Portfolios (3) Milman
  Students create a digital professional portfolio, using advanced skills in the design, development, integration, and use of multimedia resources.
6441 Internship in Educational Technology Leadership (3) Staff
  Students are assigned to a cooperating agency and work in consultation under the guidance of the course instructor. Admission by permission of instructor.
6442 Educational Technology Leadership Master's Project (1-6) Staff
  Students design, develop, implement, and evaluate an individual project. Admission by permission of instructor.
6510 Administration of Higher Education (3) Staff
  Government, organization, and administration of colleges and universities; duties of trustees and administrators.
6520 Foundations of College Student Development (3) Staff
  College student development theories, practices, and problems, including historical overview and human development theories related to college students.
6525 Managing College Student Services Programs (3) Staff
  An overview of student affairs administrative practices, including planning models, budgeting, policy development, program development, facility management, and team building. Admission by permission of instructor.
6540 Group and Organizational Theories (3) Staff
  Review of major organizational theories inside and outside higher education, including systems, institutional, cultural, cognitive, environmental, ecological, as well as power and influence.
6555 Higher Education Policy (3) El-Khawas and Staff
  Assessment of policies that impact higher education, including the relationship of K-12 policy to higher education. Policy networks and mechanisms of policy making. Policy development and assessment.
6560 Legal Problems in Higher Education (3) Staff
  Investigation of legal problems in higher education related to the legal structure of higher education, religious concerns, students, faculty, and academic programs.
6565 Financing Higher Education (3) Staff
  Analysis of private, state, federal, and other revenue sources; strategic planning, program budgets, and financial methods and practices.
6570 Educational Planning (3) Lemasters, Tekleselassie, and Staff
  An examination of the planning movement in education: its historical development and the recent shift in premises, context, and expectations. Different approaches to the planning process; its role in research; and overview of main analytical techniques currently in use.
6572 Dynamics of Change (3) Staff
  An analysis of the process of change, particularly as it relates to educational policy. Comparison of theories; analytical tools; historical precedents; examples of federal education policies.
6575 Personnel Administration (3) Staff
  Human resource management: planning, recruitment, selection, placement and induction, staff development, rewards, and negotiations. Issues and legislation that influence personnel functions and policy; communication skills for human resource leadership.
6579 Managing Multicultural Environments (3) Staff
  Application of multicultural research in identifying key elements for managing diverse environments, communicating with families, planning professional development activities, and increasing student learning.
6585 Master's Internship in Higher Education Administration (3 to 6) Staff
  Supervised field experience in higher education settings. Admission by permission of instructor. (Fall, spring, and summer)
6601 International and Comparative Education (3) Williams, Engel
  Theoretical foundations of comparative and international education; systematic investigation of the structure and practices of selected representative school systems in different parts of the world. Emphasis on development of methodologies for comparative study.
6602 Regional Studies in International Education (3) Cummings, Williams, Engel, and Staff
  In-depth study of education in a selected region of the world. Structures and issues facing education systems in social, political, economic, cultural, and historical context. Prospects of education for human national development. May be repeated for credit provided the region differs.
6610 Programs and Policies in International Education (3) Williams, Cummings, and Staff
  Overview of policies and programmatic responses to issues in international education. Topics include education and development, international higher education and student services, and education and marginalized people. May be repeated for credit provided the topic differs.
6615 Internationalizing U.S. Schools (3) Engel
  The introduction and development of internationally oriented curricula, policy, and practices in U.S. schools. Key concepts of international education, including global citizenship and global competence, exploring their relationship to recent policy trends in U.S. and debates surrounding nationalism.
6620 Strategies and Analysis in International Education (3) Williams, Cummings, and Staff
  Strategies for improving education in international contexts. Topics include education and development, international higher education and student services, or education and marginalized people. May be repeated for credit provided the topic differs.
6630 International Experience (1 to 6) Williams, Cummings, and Staff
  Study and research in a foreign country as part of a group program. Admission by permission of the instructor.
6631 Internship: International Education (1 to 6) Williams, Cummings, Engel
  Service in an international education institution or related individually designed program planned to enable the student to connect theory to practice. Admission by permission of instructor. (Fall and spring)
6632 Research in International Education (3) Cummings, Williams
  Critical reading and practice in conducting research in international comparative education. May be repeated for credit.
6640 Selected Topics in International Education (3) Williams, Cummings, Engel, and Staff
  Current trends, themes, and issues in international education. May be repeated for credit provided the topic differs.
6650 Education and National Development (3) Cummings
  In terms of the basic assumption that education contributes to national development, the course examines the role education plays in the process of national development in advanced industrial societies and societies moving to industrialism.
6660 Capstone in International Education (3) Williams, Cummings, and Staff
  Review of core topics in international education and completion of major supervised project or paper. Taken near the end of the master's program in lieu of the Comprehensive Examination.
6701 Museum Education: History and Context (3) Stapp
  An overview of the museum as an environment for learning, considering the influence of institutional history and organizational structure on the museum's mission of serving the public. Admission by permission of instructor. (Summer)
6702 Communication Skills (3) Lent
  Theory of and practice in the development of communication skills in the museum. Educational concepts; teaching strategies and techniques; institutional liaison and group process. Admission by permission of instructor. (Summer)
6703 Museum Audiences (3) Staff
  A survey of the museum's diverse audience, emphasizing implications for effective programming, with attention to audience research. Preparation of a programming plan in cooperation with a museum. Admission by permission of instructor. (Fall)
6704 Supervised Experience in Education and Human Development Services (3 to 6) Staff
  Admission by permission of instructor. (Fall and spring)
6705 Museum Education: Theory and Practice (6) Stapp
  Supervised experience in education departments in area museums; students carry out projects in cooperation with the site. On-campus seminar includes presentations by leading practitioners. Admission by permission of instructor. (Spring)
6706 Museum Evaluation: Exhibition and Programs (3) Stapp and Staff
  Evaluation and research methods appropriate to the museum setting. Review of research on museum audiences; designing exhibition and program evaluations. Admission by permission of instructor. (Spring and summer)
6707 Proposal Writing (3) Staff
  The preparation of proposals for educational, business, and industrial applications, including those submitted for funding. Many styles and formats are illustrated. Students prepare a proposal in cooperation with an organization or agency. Admission by permission of instructor.
6709 Interpretation in the Historic House Museum (3) Stapp
  Seminar integrating advanced practices of museum education with current scholarship in architectural history, material culture, and social history. Extensive use of Washington museum resources. Admission by permission of instructor. Same as AmSt 6709. (Fall)
6710 Museums and Technology (3) Staff
  Applications of technology that link the public with the museum: Internet exhibitions, interactive computer programs, video conferencing, the electronic classroom. Guest lectures, field trips, and group projects. Same as MStd 6710.
6998-99 Thesis Research (3-3) Staff
8100 Special Topics (arr.) Staff
  Topic to be announced in the Schedule of Classes. May be repeated for credit provided the topic differs.
8110 Advanced Study: Ideas, Issues, and Practices in Education (3) Paley, Futrell, Shotel, Castleberry
  For precandidates for the Ed.D. Alternative means of responding to the complexities of the educational process. Topics vary but concern education as an individual process and as sociocultural preservation and renewal. May be repeated for credit.
8120 Group Comparison Designs and Analyses (3) Dannels, Choi, Swayze, Weiss
  Designs and analyses to assess differences for more than two groups when compared on one dependent variable. Fixed, random, and mixed effects ANOVA and ANCOVA models and multiple comparison tests. Nonparametric tests. Prerequisite: Educ 6116 or equivalent.
8122 Qualitative Research Methods (3) Dannels, Swayze, Howard
  A general introduction to several major qualitative research traditions (e.g., biography, grounded theory, ethnography, phenomenology, and case study). Application of qualitative research design and procedures, including preliminary data collection, analysis, and writing.
8130 Survey Research Methods (3) Dannels
  Techniques used to collect an array of information from a large number of people through structured interviews and mailed, e-mailed, or web-based questionnaires. Defining the research question and design; sampling, survey development, data collection procedures, pretesting, and data handling. Prerequisite: Educ 8120, 8122.
8131 Case Study Research Methods (3) Swayze
  Techniques used to examine one or a few complex cases, collecting data from several types of sources and by several methods. The course covers design, data collection, and data analysis/integration. Prerequisite: Educ 8122.
8140 Ethnographic Research Methods (3) Howard
  Techniques used to examine systematically the contemporary daily life of a given group in its natural setting, focusing on culture-the recurring patterns of thought and social relations. Issues of research design and data collection and analysis. Prerequisite: Educ 8122.
8142 Phenomenological Research Methods (3) Howard
  Techniques used to elicit and recognize perceptions, interpretations, motives, expectations, and imaginations. The framing of appropriate research questions, data collection and analysis, and the statement of conclusions. Prerequisite: Educ 8122.
8144 Discourse Analysis (3) Staff
  Techniques used to examine verbal and nonverbal communication to understand identity, beliefs, intentions, relationships, and culture. The framing of appropriate research questions; data collection and analysis. Prerequisite: Educ 8122.
8170 Educational Measurement (3) Choi
  Classical and modern measurement theory, item response theory, and factor analysis. Educational and psychological instrument development and validation. Interpretation of scale scores and assessment of instrument adequacy. Prerequisite: Educ 8120.
8171 Predictive Designs and Analyses (3) Weiss, Choi
  Techniques used to assess how independent variables are related to one dependent variable. Simple regression, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression. Appropriate research questions, data interpretation, and design. Prerequisite: Educ 8120.
8172 Multivariate Analysis (3) Choi
  Techniques for assessment of relationships among multiple independent variables and dependent variables. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), discriminant analysis, and exploratory factor analysis. Prerequisite: Educ 8171.
8173 Structural Equation Modeling (3) Weiss
  Multivariate techniques used for assessment of structural (causal) relations among latent (unobserved) variables with multiple observed indicators: observed and latent variable path analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Latent means analysis and latent growth modeling. Prerequisite: Educ 8171.
8276 Seminar: Administration and Supervision (arr.) Ehrensal
8280 Critical Review of Educational Leadership Literature (1 or 3) Lemasters, Tekleselassie
  The techniques, tools, and presentation of critical reviews and syntheses of educational literature used to inform forthcoming research. Systematic mapping of what is known and deriving research questions, conceptual frameworks, and applicable methods. Prerequisite: an approved dissertation topic or permission of instructor.
8320 The Politics of Education (3) El-Khawas
  Examination of the contextual factors (political, economic, and historical) and the nature of political decision making on education issues, primarily at the state and local level. Prerequisite: Educ 6371.
8321 Economics of Education (3) Nakib
  Economic analysis as it pertains to educational systems and their impact on economic growth. Economic aspects of the conduct and evaluation of policy. Economic principles and theories applied to education problems such as productivity and cost analyses. Prerequisite: Educ 6371 and 8120. (Spring)
8322 Education Policy Implementation (3) Nakib
  The evolution and implementation of education policies. Analysis of policy implementation at various levels and types of educational systems. Policy is analyzed as a process and as it interacts with organizational, social, economic, and political factors. The impediments of effective implementation. Prerequisite: Educ 6371.
8323 Policies of Education Equity (3) Nakib
  Analysis of the development, implementation, and evaluation of education equity policies, with consideration of their context, formulation, and application. Prerequisite: Educ 6371.
8325 Policy Design: Accountability in Education (3) El-Khawas
  Issues of policy design that underlie the push for greater accountability in education. Students review research articles and conceptual argument, discuss evidence on actual practice, and identify strengths and weaknesses of a range of policy tools. Prerequisite: Educ 6371.
8329 Seminar in Program Evaluation (3) Staff
  Contemporary problems and issues in evaluation of social programs: design, implementation, analysis, and utilization. Prerequisite: Educ 6381 and approval of instructor.
8334 Doctoral Internship in Educational Policy (3 to 6) Staff
  Supervised internship in education or human services settings for advanced doctoral students.
8340 Methods of Policy Analysis in Education (3) Rotberg
  Methods of analysis used in the study of educational policy issues. Case studies on a range of policy issues and trends, including testing and accountability, school finance, school choice, and the federal role. Prerequisite: Educ 6371, 6114, or permission of instructor.
8345 Advanced Studies in Educational Policy Analysis (3) Staff
  The process by which education policies are designed, adopted, and implemented by education systems. Case studies of specific policies, examining their assumptions and objectives, the criteria for assessing their effectiveness, and their governance at federal, state, and local levels. Prerequisite: Educ 6371, 8120, or permission of instructor.
8505 Seminar: Higher Education Administration (3) Staff
8525 College and University Curriculum (3) Staff
  Development, patterns, creative design, issues, problems, evaluation, and trends in the higher education curriculum.
8530 Leadership in Higher Education (3) Staff
  Cognitive leadership theory as articulated in higher education: what leadership is, how it works, how it is practiced, how it is considered by scholars and practitioners, and how it is researched.
8540 History of Higher Education (3) Staff
  History, philosophy, scope, purpose, present status, programs, and trends in higher education in the United States.
8560 Case Studies in Higher Education Administration (3) Staff
  An analysis of case studies related to administrative functions in colleges and universities.
8565 College and University Governance (3) Staff
  Organizational and administrative structures, patterns, and relationships in higher education.
8580 The Community/Junior College (3) Staff
  The two-year college as it relates to secondary education, four-year colleges, and universities. Objectives, curricula, students, faculty, legal concerns, and special problems of two-year colleges.
8582 Administration and Governance of Two-Year Colleges (3) Staff
  A study of the community/junior college, focusing on administrative and governance patterns and national, regional, state, and local influences, as well as the theory and structure of two-year college organization.
8585 Doctoral Internship in Higher Education Administration (3 to 6) Staff
  Service in a higher education situation directed by the University and the cooperating institution to integrate theory and practice. Admission by permission of instructor.
8594 Current Issues in Higher Education (3) Staff
  Analysis of contemporary issues in higher education practice and scholarship.
8998 Pre-Dissertation Seminar (3 to 6) Staff
  Required of all departmental Ed.D. degree candidates. Approval of the dissertation research proposal by the dissertation committee is necessary for successful completion of the seminar. Admission by permission of instructor.
8999 Dissertation Research (3 or 6) Staff
  Prerequisite: Educ 8998.


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Information in this bulletin is generally accurate as of fall 2012. The University reserves the right to change courses, programs, fees, and the academic calendar, or to make other changes deemed necessary or desirable, giving advance notice of change when possible.