SARAJEVO AS AN INTERNATIONAL CITY:

AN EXAMPLE OF THE TECHNOLOGY OF PARTICIPATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stuart A. Umpleby

 

 

 

 

 

 

Department of Management Science

The George Washington University

Washington, DC 20052

Umpleby@gwu.edu

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 12, 2004

 

 

 

 

 

 

A report on a demonstration in an undergraduate class at the Faculty of Economics

University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, May 12, 2004

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

On May 12, 2004, Stuart Umpleby conducted a demonstration of the Participatory Strategic Planning procedure developed by the Institute of Cultural Affairs.  The participants were undergraduate students in Prof. Aziz Sunje's management class in the Faculty of Economics of the University of Sarajevo in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina.  The Participatory Strategic Planning (PSP) process involves five steps:

  1. Operating Vision
  2. Underlying Contradictions
  3. Strategic Directions

4.      Systematic Actions

  1. Implementation Timeline

 

Each step of the PSP process uses the Consensus Workshop method. This method entails five steps:

  1. Context
  2. Brainstorm
  3. Cluster
  4. Name
  5. Resolve

 

About 40 students participated in the exercise.  The exercise was conducted in English.  The purpose of the exercise was to demonstrate group facilitation methods, to learn what Bosnian students are thinking about the future of their country and to encourage the students to use such methods for improving the performance of organizations in Bosnia.

 

Five focus questions, all related to the future of Bosnia, were suggested. 

  1. How can we promote social, political, and economic integration in Bosnia?
  2. How can we promote the economic development of Bosnia?
  3. Sarajevo as an international city
  4. How to create a common urban-rural culture?
  5. How can Bosnian expatriates help Bosnia?

 

The students chose as a focus question, Sarajevo as an international city.

 

When a planning exercise is conducted with a business or government agency, usually it is conducted during a weekend, often in a "retreat" setting, when there is more time.  Ideally people from outside the organization are also involved particularly during the final parts of the planning activity.  These people can relate their experiences with similar problems, suggest alternative actions, and provide sources of needed materials or skills.  In addition outside observers may be impressed with the planning exercise and decide to conduct one in their organizations.

 

 

RESULTS OF THE TOP EXERCISE, UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO, 5/12/2004

 

VISION

 

Sports and cultural center

Olympic games again (5 cards)

Eurosong winner

Win MTV music awards

Final champions league in Sarajevo (soccer)

Soccer champion league

 

Joining Europe

No wars

Entering the EU

BiH in EU

Enter the EU

No foreigners in politics

No foreign influence

People from many countries in Sarajevo

International meetings held in Sarajevo

 

Growing economy

McDonald’s

Foreign investment

Buy domestic products

Decrease unemployment

Better economic situation

Improved living standards

Privatization

 

Tourist Center

Sarajevo as tourist center of Balkans

Legalize marihuana, Sarajevo = Amsterdam

Winter tourism

Development of tourism

 

Improved infrastructure (particularly transportation)

Finish 5 C highway

Highways

New highways

Metro

 

Many academic institutes

Sarajevo as an educational center

Student exchanges

International Institutes

 

Safe and attractive environment

Cleaner streets

Renovation of destroyed buildings

Removal of mines

 

 

CONTRADICTIONS

 

Political system (2)

Bad politics (2)

Strange politics

Politics based on ethnic groups

Politics (3)

Fascism

 

Low economic growth rate

Unemployment

Unemployment of youth

No jobs

Idleness

Low living standards

Bad economy

Bad economic situation

Weak economic situation

Unstable environment for foreign investors

 

Too much corruption

Corruption (8)

 

Inappropriate Constitution and legal system

Bad laws

Contradictions in government

Two entities – RS and Federation (2)

Internal borders

One country, three presidents

No sanctions for obstructing the law

 

Low political consciousness

No interest in politics and economy

Irresponsible citizens (lack of interest)

Passive youth

Political incompetence and lack of commitment to political situation

Skepticism and lack of optimism

 

Inappropriate political judgments

Wrong people in positions of power

Wrong people in power

Nepotism

Officials take advantage of their positions

 

Foreign influence in government

Too much foreign influence

Interests of foreigners in government

Foreign lobbies

 

Lack of qualified management

Wrong education, not relevant

Lack of professionalism

Lack of good management

 

Lack of reconciliation

Sense of injustice

War criminals are not in jail

 

Consequences of the war

Physical and emotional scars of war

Technologically behind other countries

 

 

STRATEGIES

 

Restructure the government

Reorganize the political system

Change (remove) government leaders

Politically unite BiH

Remove separate entities (RS and Federation) (2)

Create a united people in Bosnia

Conduct politics without foreign involvement

 

Balance imports and exports

Increase exports

Decrease imports and increase exports

Increase taxes on alcohol and cigarettes

Better control of imports

Higher customs duties

 

Improve educational system

Educate people

Higher educational standards

Better education

Acceptance of law concerning education

More practice in educational institutions

 

Improve legal controls

Punish corrupt officials

Control the government

Stronger sanctions for breaking the law

Put war criminals in jail

 

Improve government management

Decrease administration/ bureaucracy

Change some aspects of the law

Make political reforms

Make government more effective

 

Encourage buying domestic products

Increase government budget for buying domestic products

Better marketing of domestic products

Government support for SMEs

More jobs

 

Improve economic environment

Low interest rates

Reduce taxes

Obtain foreign investment

 

Increase worker involvement

Worker participation

Include workers in management

Invest in Human Resources Management

 

Positive engagement in Sarajevo’s future

Don’t worry, be happy  J

Deeper involvement of citizens

 

Upgrade infrastructure

More technologies

More investment in infrastructure

 

Use local resources

Use natural resources

Use domestic resources

 

Define and promote the unique features of Sarajevo and BiH

European promotion of BiH potentials

 

Appropriate support for retired people

 

 

ACTIONS

 

Encourage students to become a member of a political party

Create better communication between students and government

Increase participation of BiH youth in politics

Start student political organizations

 

Start a student organization

We need to help each other

Advertise student movement

 

Adopt educational innovations

Have practice in projects before finishing school

Increase ecology education

 

Write articles about today’s Sarajevo

 

Start or revitalize student newspaper

 

Organize charity auctions to raise money

 

Show all people the real situation in Bosnia

 

 

IMPLEMENTATION TIMELINE

 

                                                                                                                Quarter of the year

Actions                                  2/ 04                                        3/ 04                                    4/ 04                           1/ 05

 

Involve students                  Recruit students                   Students work                   Work with officials

in politics                               for campaigns                       in campaigns                      to implement programs

 

Start student                         Check into history               Create plan for                     Find students for

newspaper                             of student newspapers         starting or improv.             various jobs

 

Create or revitalize                                              Survey students to                                           Organize around the

student govt                         identify key issues               key issues

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Umpleby, S.,  Medvedeva, T. and Oyler, A. “The Technology of Participation as a Means of Improving Universities in Transitional Economies,”  World Futures, Vol. 6, Nos. 1-2, pp. 129-136.

 

Umpleby, S. and  Oyler, A.  “A Global Strategy for Human Development:  The Work of the Institute of Cultural Affairs,”  Proceedings of the annual meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences, Crete, Greece, July 7-11, 2003.