Institute for International Economic Policy

The IIEP Global Economic Governance in the 21st Century Initiative

Project on Trade Agreements and Internet Governance



Annotated Bibliography


This bibliography contains documents concerning the intersection of trade regulation, Internet freedom, cybersecurity, and human rights. We include full link URLS in case you wish to print any of this for later use. Please contact Miles with any questions, corrections, or additions to this page.



Official Documents


European Union





European Parliament. "Report on critical information infrastructure protection -- achievements and next steps: towards global cyber security". Motion for a European Parliament Resolution (adopted 21 March 2012)

  • - Text of a motion in EU Parliament to communicate priorities for cybersecurity to European Commission.


European Commission. "Protecting Europe from large scale cyber-attacks and disruptions: enhancing preparedness, security, and resilience." COM(2009) 149.

  • - Describes EU goals and approach to cybersecurity.

European Commission. "European principles and guidelines for Internet resilience and stability". Version of March 2011.

  • - Establishes guidelines for Internet standards and cooperation in EC members.


European Commission. "Critical Information Infrastructure Protection".

  • - Description and links to EC activities on cybersecurity.


Intellectual Property Rights


European Commission. "A Single Market for Intellectual Property Rights Boosting creativity; and innovation to provide economic growth, high quality jobs, and first class products and services in Europe: A Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions". Brussels, 24 May 2011. COM (2011) 287"

  • - Proposes an integrated IPR regime in Europe to bolster innovation and growth.


European Parliament. "Report on the proposal for a Council regulation implementing enhanced cooperation in the area of the creation of unitary patent protection with regard to the applicable translation arrangements." Brussels, 21 December 2011. COM (2011) 0216

  • - Addresses translation issues in European patent regime.




European Commission. "State of the Innovation Union 2011: Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions." Brussels, 2 December 2011. COM (2011) 849.

  • - Assesses prospects for innovation as driver of economic recovery and growth in EU.


European Commission. "Commission Staff Working Document; Accompanying the Document" Report from the Commission to the European Council; Trade and Investment Barriers Report 2012." COM (2012) 70; Brussels, 21 February 2012.

  • - Identifies barriers to trade for EU goods and services.


European Commission. "Trade and Investment Barriers Report 2012: an enforcement agenda to break down barriers to trade: engaging our strategic economic partners on improved market access." COM (2012) 70; Brussels, 21 February 2012.

  • - Describes EU progress in reducing barriers to trade.


European Parliament. "Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the Internet Market ('Directive on electronic commerce')". Official Journal L 178 , 17/07/2000 P. 0001 - 0016

  • - Directive from EU Parliament concerning electronic commerce.




European Commission. "Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data (General Data Protection Regulation)", Brussels 25 January 2012.

  • - Proposes EU law to protect personal data in light of growing challenges to privacy protections in earlier legislation.


Internet Freedom


European Commission. "Digital Agenda: Commission opens public consultation on preservation of the open internet (net neutrality)". EC Press Release IP/12/817, 23/07/2012.

  • - Invitation to public to participate in policy-making in EC decision regarding net neutrality.


European Commission. "A clean and open Internet: Public consultation on procedures for notifying and acting on illegal content hosted by online intermediaries."

  • -Questionnaire for public input on failures of current copyright regime.


Directorate-General for External Policies: Policy Department, "Information and Communication Technologies and Human Rights," 2010.

  • - Study of human rights with respect to information technologies.


United States of America




White House. "Cybersecurity Policy Review: Assuring a Trusted and Resilient Information and Communications Infrastructure." (2010)

  • - Overview of US cybersecurity policy with focus on gaps and problems.


White House. "International Strategy for Cyberspace: Prosperity, Security, and Openness in a Networked World". May 2011.

  • - U.S. White House policy for cyberspace internationally.


U.S. Department of Defense. "Department of Defense Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace." July 2011.

  • - U.S. Defense Department policy statement on cyberspace.


U.S. Department of Defense. "Department of Defense Mobile Device Strategy" v. 2.0.

  • - Identifies DoD goals in deploying and using mobile devices.


US GAO. "Electronic Warfare: DoD Actions Needed to Strengthen And Management and Oversight". July 2012

  • - Review and recommendations of US DoD strategy for control of EM spectrum.


Fischer, Eric A. "Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions." Congressional Research Service, June 29, 2012.

  • - Summary of U.S. statutes regulating cyber-security and discussion of proposed legislation and revisions.


Tehan, Rita. "Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources." Congressional Research Service, July 3, 2012.

  • - List of US government activity and publications on cybersecurity.


Intellectual Property Rights


Economic & Statistics Administration. "Intellectual Property and the U.S. Economy: Industries in Focus." Department of Commerce, April 10, 2012.

  • - Identifies US industries most dependent on IP protection and quantifies those benefits.


National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center. "Home". Department of Homeland Security

  • - Web portal for US IPR enforcement coordination effort.


White House. "2011 U.S. Intellectual Property Enforcement Coordinator Annual Report on Intellectual Property Enforcement." March 2012.

  • - Describes US government work in regulating IPR enforcement.


National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center. "Intellectual Property Rights Violation: A Report on Threats to United States Interests at Home and Abroad." Department of Homeland Security.

  • - Assesses immense and growing threat to US IPR.




International Trade Administration. "2009 Electronic Commerce Industry Assessment." Department of Commerce. $FILE/Electronic%20Commerce%20Industry%20Assessment%20Public%20June%2016.pdf

  • - Describes market for international electronic commerce (i.e. online sales).


Office of the United States Trade Representative. "Trade Facts: Free Trade "Down Under"; Summary of the U.S.-Australia Free Trade Agreement". Washington, DC; February 8, 2004.

  • - Summarizes provisions and benefits of U.S.-Aus. free trade agreement, including e-commerce provisions.


Office of the United States Trade Representative. "2012 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers." Department of Commerce; Washington, DC; March 2012.

  • - Identifies most significant trade barriers affecting US goods and services.


United States International Trade Commission. "U.S.-Free Trade Agreement: Potential Economy-wide and Selected Sectoral Effects." Investigation No. TA-2104-24, USITC Publication 3949, September 2007 (Corrected New Printing March 2010).

  • - Predicts benefits to US economy from free trade agreement with Korea.




Department of Commerce Internet Policy Task Force. "Commercial Data Privacy and Innovation in the Internet Economy: Dynamic Policy Framework." 2010.

  • - Study of US policy on commercial data protection, with recommendations.


Internet Freedom


Lofgren, Zoe (Hon.). "The One Global Internet Act of 2010." Congress of the United States, House of Respresentatives, Washington, DC.

  • - Summary of Rep. Lofgren's proposed act to ensure the integrity of the Internet.






Government of Canada. "Canada's Cyber Security Strategy: for a stronger and more prosperous Canada". 2010.

  • - Describes Canadian government's plan for protecting digital infrastructure.


Holly Porteous, Dominique Valiquet, "Cybersecurity and Cybercrime: Dealing with a Complex Threat," Library of Parliament, Canada.

  • - Describes challenges for Canadian government and Parliament in fighting cybercrime.


Intellectual Property Rights





Industry Canada. "Internet Service Providers Report; Executive Summary"

  • -Abstract of study looking at costs to Canadian ISPs of copyright enforcement.


Government of Canada. "Consultation Paper: Improving Canada's Digital Advantage; Strategies for Sustainable Prosperity". Digital Canada.

  • - Report on Canda's plans to bolster their digital economy.


Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. "Report of the Joint Study on the Possibility of a Canada-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement". Canada, March 7, 2012.

  • - Assessment of possible benefits to a Canada-Japan free-trade agreement.




Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada. "Privacy for Everyone: Annual Report to Parliament 2011; Report on the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act." Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada 2011.

  • - Report of activities by Canadian government officer responsible for privacy protection.


Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada. "Guidelines for Processing Personal Data Across Borders." January 2009.

  • - Explains PIPEDA rules for third-party data transactions across borders.


Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner for British Columbia. "2011-12 Annual Report". Victoria, BC, July 2012.

  • -Report of activities by provincial officer responsible for privacy protection.


Internet Freedom


Human Rights Council. "Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, Martin Scheinen." UN General Assembly, A/HRC/13/37 28 December 2009.

  • - Focuses on privacy and data protection as a human right, and erosions to same from counter-terrorism policy.


United Nations


UN General Assembly, "Promotion and Protection of the right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression: Note by the Secretary-General";. 66th Sess., Item 69, A/66/290

  • - Discusses the relevance and consequences of international human rights law to Internet use and access, with recommendations for UN member states regulation of the Internet.


UN, "19th session of the Human Rights Council; CONCEPT NOTE; Panel discussion on the right to freedom of expression on the Internet". 29 February 2012, 12:00-15:00, Room XX, Palais des Nations, Geneva

  • - Description of the goals and participants of a panel discussion convened by UNHCR to discuss protection of human rights on the Internet.


UN General Assembly. "Report of the Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights, Farida Shaheed; The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications." Human Rights Council, 20th Session, A/HRC/20/26, 14 May 2012.

  • - Recommends states ensure freedom of access to the Internet, promote open access to information, and guard against promoting the privatization of knowledge.


Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development


OECD Council Recommendation on Principles for Internet Policy Making

  • - Establishes principles for regulation of the Internet economy by OECD member states, with emphasis on free flow of information and maintaining the Internet as decentralized, internationally connected, and open.


OECD "Seoul Declaration for the Future of the Internet Economy". 18 June 2008

  • - Non-binding agreement establishes principles for Internet regulation focused on economic gains from free flow of information and promotion of wider access.


OECD. "Current Developments in Privacy Frameworks: Towards Global Interoperability". 1 November 2011, Mexico City, MX.

  • - Collection of speeches and documents from conference on privacy regulation


OECD. "OECD Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Information." 23 September 1980.

  • - Effort to harmonize national legislation with respect to data pre-Internet.


OECD. "Summary of the Chair of the Meeting". OECD High Level Meeting -- The Internet Economy: Generating Innovation and Growth, 28-29 June 2011, Paris.

  • - Summarizes meeting of public and private parties concerning with fostering an open internet and encouraging economic growth.


World Trade Organization


WTO. "15 Years of the Information Technology Agreement."

  • - Describes the origins and success of the ITA in promoting free trade in information technology.


International Telecommunications Union


World Summit on the Information Society. "Tunis Commitment". WSIS-05/TUNIS/DOC/7-E, 18 November 2005.

  • - Statement from an intergovernmental conference on information technology, notable in affirming the importance freedom of expression.


World Intellectual Property Organization


WIPO Internet Treaties

  • - List of treaties by the WIPO concerning the Internet.


WIPO. "Survey on Implementation Provisions of the WCT and WPPT". Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, Ninth Session, Geneva; April 25, 2003.

  • - Survey of WIPO member states' implementation of WIPO treaties.


Council of Europe


Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights. "Social Media and Human Rights: Issue Discussion Paper". Strasbourg, February 2012.

  • - Paper by Douwe Korff and Ian Brown examining media freedoms in Europe and the CoE's ability to protect associated rights.


Council of Europe, Committee of Ministers. "Declaration by the Committee of Ministers on Internet governance principles". 27 September 2011, 1121st Mtg. of Ministers' Deputies.

  • - Sets forth Council of Europe policy with respect to Internet governance.


Parliamentary Assembly. "The protection of privacy and personal data on the Internet and online media." Report; Committee on Culture, Science and Education; Doc. 12695, 29 July 2011.

  • - Describes need for common legal standards in CoE member countries with respect to personal data and privacy.


Council of Europe. "Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data." Strasbourg, 28 January 1981.

  • - Treaty governing personal data and privacy in CoE.


Shanghai Cooperation Organization


Shanghai Cooperation Organization website, "Agreement Between the Governments of the Member States of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization on Cooperation in the Field of International Information Security," 2 Dec 2008

  • - Describe nature of threats and scope of cooperation regarding cybersecurity for members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.


Open Government Partnership


Open Government Partnership. "Open Government Partnership; promoting transparency, empowering citizens, fighting corruption, and harnessing new technologies to strengthen governance." (brochure)

  • - Brief description of IGO aimed at government transparency.


Russian Federation


"Information Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation: Approved by President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin on September 9, 2000." Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Russian Federation.!OpenDocument

  • - Outlines 'four ingredients' of Russian approach to information security.


People's Republic of China


Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China. "Full Text: The Internet in China". 8 June 2010.

  • - White paper on Internet by the PRC government.



Statement of the aims of ACTA to combat IPR infringement more effectively.

  • - Statement of the aims of ACTA to combat IPR infringement more effectively.




Senate. "Official Committee Hansard; Foreign Affairs, Defence, and Trade Legislation Committee; Estimates". Canberra, Thursday 31, May 2012.;query=Id%3A%22committees%2Festimate%2Fc5fb527c-51a7-4d94-b363-7b29d918bc9f%2F0003%22

  • - Minutes of meeting of Australian Senate committee, including questions to trade officials concerning TPP negotiations.




Opstelten, Ivo. "Cybercrime Legislation". Letter to Dutch Parliament, 15 October 2012.

  • - Unofficial English translation of letter sent by Dutch Minister of Security and Justice recommending legislation allowing cross-border electronic searches.



Statements by Public Officials


Bildt, Carl. "Tear Down These Walls Against Internet Freedom". Washington Post, Monday January 25, 2010.

  • - Op-ed by Sweden's Minister of Foreign Affairs calling for international cooperation to promote Internet freedom, specifically against authoritarian barriers to Internet access.


Bildt, Carl. "A Victory for the Internet". NY Times Thursday, July 5, 2012.

  • - Discusses UN Human RIghts Council vote on resolution affirming freedom of expression online.


Clinton, Hillary Rodham. "Internet Rights and Wrongs: Choices and Challenges in a Networked World". Remarks at the George Washington University, Washington, DC, February 12, 2011.

  • - Speech by U.S. Secretary of State discussing Internet freedom of expression.


Clinton, Hillary Rodham. "Remarks". Conference on Internet Freedom; Fokker Terminal, The Hague, Netherlands; December 8, 2011.

  • Address by U.S. Secretary of State advocating for an open internet as an aid to human rights and economic prosperity.


Ilves, Toomas Hendrik. "The President of Estonia at the International Conference of Cyber Conflict, 8 June 2012."

  • - Speaks to need for public policy concerning cyber security, focused on openness, transparency, and information sharing.


Kerry, Cameron. "Transatlantic Solutions for Data Privacy; Cameron Kerry Keynote Address at the European Data Protection and Privacy Conference." December 6, 2011; Second Annual European Data Protection and Privacy Conference, Management Centre Europe, Brussels Belgium.

  • - Speech by Deputy Counsel of Commerce Department on privacy and data protection.


Locke, Gary. "Remarks at U.S. Chamber of Commerce on Global Flow of Information on the Internet". June 16, 2011.

  • - Speech by U.S. Secretary of Commerce on efforts to encourage online commerce.


Lynn, William J. III. "Remarks on Cyber at the RSA Conference." San Francisco, CA, February 15, 2011.

  • Speech by U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense on cybersecurity threats and U.S. DoD policy response to conference of cryptography and information security experts.


Lynn, William, J. III. "Remarks at the 28th Annual International Workshop on Global Security". Paris, France. June 16, 2011.

  • - Speech by U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense on security, touching on international cooperation to promote cybersecurity.


Muižnieks, Nils. "How to ensure that the Internet remains an open and public forum for exercising freedom of opinion and expression and facilitating other human rights and fundamental freedoms." Address to the Dublin Conference on Internet Freedom, 18-19 June 2012.

  • - Speech by Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights addressing online freedom, free flow of information, and data protection.


Posner, Michael. "Remarks on Internet Freedom and Responsibility". Speech Silicon Valley Human Rights Conference, San Francisco, CA October 25, 2011.

  • - Address by U.S. Assistant Secretary of State to technology companies about their role in promoting human rights via the Internet, emphasizing self-governance over international regulation.


Posner, Michael. "Internet Freedom and the Digital Earthquake of 2011." Remarks to the State of the Net Conference, Washington, DC, January 17, 2012.

  • - Speech by U.S. Assistant Secretary of States highlighting importance of digital technology to Arab Spring and USG efforts to promote Internet freedom.


Stoddard, Jennifer. "Message from the Privacy Commissioner of Canada." Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada, February 21, 2008.

  • - Statement of the agenda of the incumbent Privacy Commissioner.


Weitzner, Daniel. "Testimony of Associate Administrator Daniel Weitzner on Human Rights Challenges Facing the Technology Industry." Subcommittee on Human Rights and the Law, Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate; Washington, DC; March 2, 2010.

  • -Testimony by National Telecommunications & Information Administration Associate Administrator for Policy Analysis and Development on human rights.



Academic Research


American Assembly. "Copyright Infringement and Enforcement in the U.S." Columbia University; November, 2011.

  • - Survey results from US on attitudes towards copyright and piracy.


Bamberger, Kenneth and Deirdre Mulligan. "Privacy on the Books and On the Ground". Stanford Law Review 63 (January 2011); UC Berkely Public Law Research Paper No. 1568385.

  • - Compares privacy laws in the U.S. with actual corporate data management practices.


Bellman, Steven; Eric J. Johnson; Stephen J. Kobrin; and Gerald Lohse. "Preferences in Information Privacy Concerns: A Global Survey of Consumers". Information Society, Vol. 20, No. 5 (2004), pp. 313-324.

  • - Compares explanations for differences in national regulation of Internet privacy using a sample of users from 39 countries.


Bendiek, Annegret. "European Cyber Security Policy". SWP Research Paper, Berlin, Germany (October 12, 2012).

  • -Assessment of EU cybersecurity policy and institutional capacity.


Benedek, Wolgang; Matthias C. Kettemann; and Max Senges, "The Human ization of Internet Governance: A Roadmap Towards a Comprehensive Global (Human) Rights Architecture for the Internet," paper for Third Annual Giganet Symposium, December 2, 2008.

  • - Addresses the need for protection of human rights on the internet, arguing against a U.N.-type convention in favor of a 'social contract' among active Internet users.


Brown, Ian. "Privacy Attitudes, Incentives and Behaviours." SSRN 2011.

  • - Examines institutional and individual behavior with respect to privacy.


Brown, Ian and Douwe Korff, "Digital Freedoms in International Law: Practical Steps to Protect Human Rights Online," Global Network Initiative, 2012, pp. 14. On the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights

  • - Offers recommendations for means Internet stakeholders can take to protect freedom of expression, privacy, and other rights.


Chang, Ha-Joon. "Kicking Away the Ladder: How the Economic and Intellectual Histories of Capitalism Have Been Re-Written to Justify Neo-Liberal Capitalism". Post-Autistic Economics Review; Issue 15, September 4, 2002, article 3.

  • - Argues rich nations did not become rich from the policies they now advocate to developing countries.


Deibert, Ron. "Securing Cyberspace: Canada needs to set an example for global Internet security." Review of Free Expression Canada 2011/2012 (Canadian Journalists for Free Expression).

  • - Argues that Canadian policymakers should understand cyber-security as protecting an open commons.


Dutta, Soumitra; William H. Dutton; and Ginette Law. "The New Internet World: A Global Perspective on Freedom of Expression, Privacy, Trust and Security Online." World Economic Forum, April 2011.

  • - Reports the results of a survey of 5400 Internet users from 13 different countries.


Evenett, Simon and Michael Meier. "An Interim Assessment of the U.S. Trade Policy of 'Competitive Liberalization'." University of St. Gallen Economics Discussion Paper No. 2007-18, February 2007.

  • - Assesses Bush (43) administration's policy of Competitive Liberalization and reliance on bilateral or regional free trade agreements to regulate trade.


Farrell, Joseph and Carl Shapiro. "Intellectual Property, Competition, and Information Technology." UC Berkeley Competition Policy Center Working Paper No. CPC04-45.

  • - Overviews of competitive strategies used by high-tech companies, especially those relying on intellectual property.


Fink, Carsten and Keith Maskus (eds.) "Intellectual Property and Development; Lessons from recent economic research." (World Bank/Oxford University Press, NY, NY: 2005)

  • - Study of the economic impact of intellectual property rules in developing countries.


Geist, Michael and Milana Homsi. "Outsourcing our Privacy? Privacy and security in a borderless commercial world." University of New Brunswick Law Journal 54:272 (2005).

  • - Examines legal arguments concerning privacy issues from outsourcing data.


Hindley, Brian and Hosuk Lee-Makiyama. "Protectionism Online: Internet Censorship and International Trade Law." ECIPE Working Paper No. 12/2009

  • - Examines the consequences of international trade law for internet censorship, looking specifically at WTO regulation.


Horner, Lisa; Dixie Hawtin; and Andrew Puddephatt. "Information Communication Technologies and Human Rights." European Parliament, 2010.

  • - Study of human rights with respect to information technologies.


Jiang, Min. "Authoritarian Informationalism: China's Approach to Internet Sovereignty" SAIS Review of International Affairs 30:2 (November 3, 2010) pp. 71-89.

  • Describes PRC policy toward Internet as a combination of 'capitalism, authoritarianism, and Confucianism'.


Knapp, Kristen. "Internet Filtering: The Ineffectiveness of WTO Remedies and the Availability of Alternative Tort Remedies".

  • - Discusses the applicability of World Trade Organization regulation to Internet filtering, and suggests alternative responses to filtering based in tort law.


Lord, Kristin and Travis Sharp (ed.s). "America's Cyber Future: Security and Prosperity in the Information Age." Center for New American Security, 32 May 2011.

  • - Two-volume study of U.S. cyber-policy, aimed at U.S. policymakers.


Marcus, J. Scott; Kenneth Carter; Neil Robinson; Lisa Klautzer; Chris Marsden; Joel Reidenberg; Camilla Abder; Cedric Burton; Lisa Cooms; Ezra Kover; Yves Poullet; Florence De Villenfagne; Franck Dumortier; Adam Peake; Keisuke Kamimura; and Tazuko Tanaka. "Comparison of Privacy and Trust Policies in the Area of Electronic Communications; Final Report". wik-Consult GmbH/Rand Europe/CLIP/CRID/GLOCOM, Bad Honnef, Germany 20 July 2007.

  • - Comparison of privacy policy across five countries and Europe.


Nelson, Michael R. "The Cloud, The Crowd, and Public Policy." Issues in Science and Technology, Summer 2009.

  • - Argues for government leadership to shape the future of cloud computing.


Netanel, Neil Weinstock. "Impose a Noncommercial Use Levy to Allow Free Peer-to-Peer File Sharing." Harvard Journal of Law & Technology 17:1 (Fall 2003).

  • - Proposes a levy on copyright-infringing technology to reimburse copyright holders and permit unhindered online sharing of copyrighted material.


Robinson, Neil; Hans Graux; Maarten Botterman; and Lorenzo Valeri. "Review of European Data Protection Directive." Technical Report, RAND Europe. 2009, Cambridge, UK.

  • -Report to the (UK) Information Commissioner's Office on 1995 EDPD, arguing that it will not suffice in a globally networked world.


Sommer, Peter and Ian Brown. "Reducing Systemic Cybersecurity Risk". OECD Project on "Future Global Shocks".

  • - Describes the risk of a 'global shock' from cyberspace as narrower and more complex that popularly believed, and discusses prevention and responses to such events.


Souter, David. "Human Rights and the Internet: A Review of Perceptions in Human Rights Organisations," Report to the Association for Progressive Communications (APC)

  • - An overview of how the Internet might affect human rights.


Stone, Danielle. "Anonymous in the Internet Age." Review of Free Expression Canada 2011/2012 (Canadian Journalists for Free Expression), p. 22-24

  • - Survey of Canadian law concerning online anonymity.


Thomas, Timothy. "Information Security Thinking: A Comparison of U.S., Russian, and Chinese Concepts." The Science and Culture Series, Nuclear Strategy and Peace Technology, International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies (August 2001), pp. 344-358

  • - Compares information security of three major powers.


Tian, Yijun. "Wipo Treaties, Free Trade Agreement and Implications for ISP Safe Harbour Provisions; The Role of ISP in Australian Copyright Law". Bond Law Review: Vol. 16, Iss. 1, Article 7.

  • - Analysis of internet service provider safe harbour rules in Australian copyright law.


Waelde, Charlotte and Lilian Edwards. "Online Intermediaries and Copyright Law." WIPIO Workshop Keynote Paper, Geneva, April 2005.

  • - Examines role of intermediaries for copyright enforcement.


Wu, Tim. "The World Trade Law of Internet Filtering".

  • - Discusses the jurisdiction of the WTO with respect to Internet goods and services, focusing on two case studies, China and Skype.


Wunsch-Vincent, Sacha and Joanna McIntosh. "WTO, E-commerce, and Information Technologies: from the Uruguay Round through the Doha Development Agenda. A report for the UN ICT Task Force." Markle Foundation.

  • - Describes the development of the WTO's role in IT governance.



Non-Governmental Organizations


Article 19. "Human Rights community speaks out on Protect IP Act"

  • - Letter to U.S. Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid describing possible deleterious consequences of the PIPA to free expression on the Internet, signed by dozens of human rights and Internet policy NGOs.


Association for Progressive Communications. "APC Internet Rights Charter" November 2006.

  • - Argues that the Internet must be open, affordable, and accessible.


Black, Edward J. "Internet Freedom and Granting Russia Permanent Normal Trade Relations". Letter to Max Baucus, U.S. Senate, June 19, 2012.

  • - Letter from the Computer and Communications Industry of America arguing that Russia's restrictions on Internet freedom should be a consideration of trade policy.


Center for Democracy and Technology. "Consumer Privacy: Baseline Privacy Law". CDT 2012.

  • - Critique of US privacy laws and recommendation for a 'baseline' applicable to all economic sectors which gather data from consumers.


Fontaine, Richard and Will Rogers. "Internet Freedom: A Foreign Policy Imperative in the Digital Age". Center for a New American Security, June 2011.

  • - Argues for an 'Internet freedom strategy' in favor of free expression.


Free Press and the Free Press Action Fund. "Declaration of Internet Freedom".

  • - Statement of principles for Internet governance endorsed by a broad range of organizations and individuals.


Hedlund, Julie A. and Robert D. Atkinson. "The Rise of the New Mercantilists: Unfair Trade Practices in the Innovation Economy". Information Technology and Innovation Foundation; June 2007.

  • - Asserts that many governments use trade barriers to protect their economies from competition in IT trade.


Internet Governance Caucus. "Links: Statements of Internet rights and principles".

  • - Collection of links to various statements of Internet rights, including those by NGOs and IGOs.


IT for Change et al. "Global Governance of the Internet must be Democratised: A joint statement by civil society organisations for the UN CSTD meeting on 'Enhanced Cooperation on Public Policy Issues Pertaining to the Internet' to take place in Geneva on May 18th, 2012".

  • - Statement from a coalition of NGOs in developing countries arguing for broader democratic participation in the governance of the Internet.


Knowledge Ecology International. "Trans-Pacific Partnership Intellectual Property Rights Chapter; Draft -- February 10, 2011".

  • - Leaked draft chapter from TPP covering IPR.


Open Net Initiative "About Filtering".

  • - Explains the primary tools governments use to censor the Internet.


Pirates without borders. "Pirate Codex".

  • - Platform for the international 'Pirate' movement.


Rogers, Thomas and Andrew Szamosszegi. "Fair Use in the U.S. Economy: Economic Contribution of Industries Relying on Fair Use." Computer and Communication Industry Association, 2010.

  • - Analyzes economic benefits of exceptions to copyright law.


Smith, Brad; Darrell West; Michael Nelson; Rob Atkinson; and Jonathan Rochelle. "Cloud Computing for Business and Society"(transcript). The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC. January 20, 2010.

  • - Transcript of panel discussion on benefits of cloud computing.



Private Sector


Boorstin, Robert. "Remarks to Geneva Summit for Human Rights, Tolerance and Democracy". March 9th, 2010; Geneva, Switzerland.

  • - Speech by Google's Director of Corporate and Policy Communications to conference on human rights.


Google. "Enabling Trade in the Era of Information Technologies: Breaking Down Barriers to the Free Flow of Information". /en/us/googleblogs/pdfs/trade_free_flow_of_information.pdf

  • - Calls for governments to treat information flow as free trade and prevent barriers to such trade.


Google. "Submission to the Independent Review of Intellectual Property and Growth". March 2011.

  • - Calls for changes to copyright law to encourage Internet creativity and commerce.


Google. "Transparency Report - Removal Requests - Government."

  • - Lists government requests to remove content from Google and YouTube.