Institute for European, Russian and Eurasian Studies

Arctic Research Coordination Network: Building a Research Network for Promoting Arctic Urban Sustainability


Develoment of Russia's Arctic Urban Environment

Typology of Arctic Cities

What is Urban Sustainabiity?

The National Environmental Policy Act defines sustainability as "creating and maintaining conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony for present and future generations." This approach focuses on three key pillars: ecological integrity, economic development, and socialy equity. Our efforts will focus on the way that climate change affects urban development in the Russian Arctic, the way that resource development (as directed by the Russian state) shapes the cities, and how demographic and migration trends influence the social fabric of Russian cities.

For this research project, the unit of analysis is the city. Naturally, sustainability can mean different things at the level of the individual, the country and the planet. Focusing on the individual would be too complicated in this context because of the difficulty in obtaining data, while work at the level of the country or internationally is too broad to understand the actual workings of the human impact on the environment. The city, along with associated oil and gas fields, mines, ports, and other industries, makes the most sense because it is the main site of human-environment interaction in the Arctic. Unfortunately, state of the art works on urban sustainability "sometimes fail to recognize urban areas as systems" (Schaffer & Vollmer, 2010). The problem is that human-environment interactions at the urban level are extremely complex and often researchers and policy-makers do not fully understand them. Given the complex nature of the problems, the set of policy solutions will be constantly evolving over time.

As we take our research further we want to explore the influence of social capital on sustainability in cities. The term "social capital" refers to the stock of trust, mutual understanding, shared values, and socially held knowledge that facilitates the social coordination of economic activity. Recognition of this concept is fairly recent, and has been strengthened by the observation that variations in social capital across communities and societies can help explain some of the differences in their development. Social capital is most often used to refer to characteristics of a society that encourage cooperation among groups of people whose joint, interdependent efforts are needed to achieve common goals such as efficient production. Studies suggest that strong norms of reciprocity lead people to trust and to help one another and that dense networks of civic participation encourage people to engage in mutually beneficial efforts rather than seeking only to gain individual advantage at the possible expense of others. (Goodwin, 2003)

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Professor Robert Orttung is interviewed by the National Public Radio in an audio clip titled, "'Frozen Conflict' in Ukraine Opens Door for Corruption."

Professor Robert Orttung co-authors article for Foreign Policy website about how Russia uses frozen conflicts to destabilize its reform-minded neighbors.

Professor Harris Mylonas discusses the Greek financial crisis in a Voice of America article.

Professor Robert Orttung co-authors op-eds in the Washington Post about Putin's approval ratings and in the Moscow Times about Russian propaganda.

Professor Peter Rollberg, IERES director, was quoted in the New York Times' review of Andrey Zvyagintsev's new film "Leviathan." He was also interviewed in an original IERES video about his thoughts on the work.

Professor Harris Mylonas was interviewed by Bulgarian newspaper Presa about Greek elections, and he and Akis Georgakellos wrote a report on the elections as well as an analysis of the new government's attempts to re-negotiate Greece's bailout terms. These pieces are part of the Washington Post's blog The Monkey Cage, and the latter has been mentioned by other Washington Post articles and the German-language Blogumschau news forum.

Professor Marlene Laruelle published a paper in the Russian Analytical Digest on Central Asian nations' reactions to the crisis in Ukraine.

Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović, a visiting scholar at the Institute from 2002-2003, was recently elected president of Croatia.

Professor Henry Hale was interviewed about his new book Patronal Politics on the Scholars' Circle radio show.

Professor Harris Mylonas was quoted in a Wall Street Journal article about the political situation in Greece.

Professor Peter Rollberg, IERES director, was quoted in the New York Times' review of Andrey Zvyagintsev's new film "Leviathan."

Professor Henry Hale was interviewed by CNN on Putin's popular support.

Professor Peter Rollberg was interviewed by BuzzFeedNews about Johnson's Russia List, which is published through IERES. The article was reprinted by the Ukrainian service

Professor Robert Orttung co-authors article on increasing media censorship in Russia.

Professor Marlene Laruelle writes article on Russia's policy-drivers in the Arctic.

Professor Eliot Sorel analyzes recent presidential elections in Romania.

Professor Marlene Laruelle's paper on Russia's policy towards Central Asia published in EUCAM.

Associate Director Cory Welt analyzes the current Georgian political climate in Foreign Policy.

Professor Hope Harrison authors an article in The Washington Post about five myths surrounding the Berlin Wall and another article in The Wilson Quarterly about German perspectives on the fall of the Wall. Read the articles here and here. In addition, a German-language article of hers devoted to the fall of the Wall recently appeared in the Berlin Tagesspiegel, and she was recently filmed in a video created by the US Embassy in Germany where she explains the building and fall of the Berlin Wall.

Assistant Director Robert Orttung authors an op-ed in The Moscow Times about Ukraine's recent elections.

Assistant Director Robert Orttung authors an op-ed in The Moscow Times on the Kremlin's international propaganda practices.

Recent Mumbai water conference covered by the Times of India.

Participants in a recent conference Central Asia Program speakers quoted by Al Jazeera on Uyghur affairs.

Professor Marlene Laruelle authors an op-ed in The Moscow Times on Russian nationalism and Eastern Ukraine.

Associate Director Cory Welt was interviewed on Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict, Russia, and U.S. policy. Read the transcripts here and here.

Professor Marlene Laruelle writes a policy memo for PONARS on the Kremlin's views on Russia's European identity.

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