Human Resource and Human Resource Development
Issues and Practices in The Czech Republic and Hungary
Summer 2011: 3 credits
Ronald B. Morgan, PhD
Ph: 703 549-7156
Fax: 703 299-0295
Academic goals: Globalization, the fall of the "iron curtain," and the expansion of NATO and the EU into central Europe have dramatically changed the extent and nature of our business interactions with central European countries. It is clear that a successful business relationship with this region requires an increased sophistication in our understanding of these cultures and their business practices. The purpose of this program is to give our students an in-depth exposure to the history, culture, politics, business practices, and human resource practices of these two Central European nations.
Course content: The course will begin with an overview of the history, culture, politics, and business practices of Hungary and the Czech Republic, as well as an overview of the expatriate development process. With that base of understanding, we will then examine specific human resource issues and practices associated with working and managing in these two countries. While abroad, students will have the opportunity to visit a mix of private and public sector organizations, and interact with employees, managers and human resource professionals.
Assignments for Masters students: The principle product for the course will be the design of an orientation/training program for US personnel, preparing them for assignments in either Budapest/Hungary or Prague/Czech Republic. Students will choose which country they wish to focus on, and will be able to use any and all of the information gathered during the visit abroad to construct their orientation programs.
The workshops will be presented on a date in June (to be arranged). Assume that the participants are HR generalists and/or other functional managers preparing for assignment abroad.
Each workshop may last about 90 minutes to 2 hours, and should encompass content to prepare participants on the following:
A brief primer on the history, economics, social and legal systems (in particular, those facts which impact current business or HR practice). A brief overview to prepare the participants for living in the focal country.
An overview of key issues HR managers must be aware of when managing a workforce in the focal country. These may encompass the entire spectrum of human resource management issues including, staffing (hr planning, testing, interviewing, selecting), orientation, training and development, performance management (goal setting, appraisal, coaching, and compensation), safety and labor relations.
Practice sessions for any key skills you believe to be necessary for success as an HR generalist or functional manager working in your focal country.
In addition to the 90 minute portion you will deliver, please outline the entire workshop as it would exist if you were actually going to deliver it.
Please see the following reading for an overview of the major components of an expat training program (available on Blackboard): Brewster, C. (1995). "Effective expatriate training," Chpt 4 in Expatriate Management: New Ideas for International Business, Jan Selmer, Ed., Westport, CT, Quorum Books (HF 5549.5.E45 E97 1995).
Evaluation: The evaluation of the workshop will be based on both content and delivery. Ensure that your group workshop is well coordinated (e.g., slides and tone match). Remember, this is to look like an organization training event, not an academic presentation.
Dates: In addition to our tour (May 19-29), we will have one formal meeting at Alexandria in June or July (date and time to be determined). Your group will be required to meet on its own to plan, construct and pilot your workshop prior to your formal presentation.
Doctoral Assignment and Alternate Masters Assignment: Students enrolled for doctoral credit, as well as any masters students who are not interested in expatriate development, will produce a research based paper on a relevant issue. Relevant issues include (but are not limited to) expatriate selection and development; transferability of western management practices, transferability of western human resource or organization development practices to either country; workforce or human resource planning issues involved in moving from a managed to a free market economy, etc. Please submit a short statement or outline of your topic (by mid-June) for approval before proceeding with your research. The outline should include some example references. The final paper is due on August 30. Papers should include a comprehensive search of the published (academic) literature, as well as any practitioner or popular literature you deem worthwhile.
Readings and Resources: The reading list and web citations are designed to do the following:
- Provide an overview of the Czech Republic and Hungary, with particular focus on Prague and Budapest.
- Get you thinking about how to characterize the business culture of the Czech Republic and Hungary along the dimensions presented by Hofstede.
- Begin to think about human resource and management issues in these two countries
- Begin to plan and develop your workshop on expatriate orientation, or your individual paper.
Most of the readings are available on Blackboard.
Your reading packet on Blackboard includes:
Readings and other resources (organized by topic)
Readings on the history and culture of the two countries:
The only books I ask you to purchase are guide books for both Prague/CR and Budapest/Hungary. In addition, I have put sections on history of Czech Republic and Hungary from two guides on Blackboard.
Nelles Guide: Prague and the Czech Republic. (1999) "The Country of the Czechs'" pp. 15-19 and "History," pp. 21-39. The guide book you purchase is probably newer. If it doesn't have a good treatment of Czech history, then you can certainly turn to this one.
Insight Guides: Hungary. (1998). "History," pp. 19-65. Again, your own guide book is likely more recent.
Cross Cultural Communication and Managing a Global Workforce
Ardo, Z. (2000). Culture shock: A guide to customs and ettiquett - Hungary. Portland, OR: Graphics Arts Center Publishing Company.
Elizur, D., Borg, I., Hunt, R., and Magyari-Beck, I. (1991). The structure of work values: A cross cultural comparison." Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, pp. 21-38.
Fernandez, D R., Carlson, D.S., Stepina, L.P., and Nicholson, J.D. "Hofstede's Country Classification 25 Years Later." Journal of Social Psychology, 1997, 137(1), pp. 43-54. This article provides a framework for characterizing the cultural values of countries. While the article does not profile the Czech Republic or Hungary, this article does present the Hofsted framework on characterizing country cultures. Lectures in the Czech Republic and Hungary may refer to the Hofstede dimensions.
*Hofstede, G. (1984). "Cultural dimensions in management and planning." Asia Pacific Journal of Management, pp. 81-99. Pages 83 - 84 present the definitions of the cultural dimensions (Individualism-Collectivism; Power Distance (large vs. small); Uncertainty Avoidance (strong vs. weak); Masculinity vs. Femininity)
*McSweeney, B. (2002). "Hofstede's model of national culture differences and their consequences: A triumph of faith". Human Relations, 55(1), pp. 89 - 118.
Roberts, K., Kossek, E.E., and Ozeki, C. (1998). "Managing the global workforce: Challenges and strategies." Academy of Management Executive, 12 (4), pp. 93-106. This paper presents ideas and strategies for managing a global workforce.
Sears, W. H., Tamulionyte-Lentz, A. (2001). Succeeding in business in Central and Eastern Europe: A guide to cultures, markets and practices. Boston: Butterworth Heinemann.
Zakaria, Norhayati. (2000). "The effects of cross cultural training on the acculturation process of the global workforce," International Journal of Manpower. 21(6), pp. 492-510.
Selection, Training and Development and Adjustment of Expatriates
*Bauer, T. and Taylor, S. (2001). "When managing expatriate adjustment, don't forget the spouse." Academy of Management Executive, 15(4), pp. 135-137.
**Brewster, C. (1995). "Effective expatriate training," Chpt 4 in Expatriate Management: New Ideas for International Business, Jan Selmer, Ed., Westport, CT, Quorum Books (HF 5549.5.E45 E97 1995).
Collings, D., Scullion, H., & Morle, M. (2007). Changing patterns of global staffing in the multinational enterprise: Challenges to the conventional expatriate assignment and emerging alternatives. Journal of World Business, 42, 198-213.
*Dalton, M., Ernst, C., Deal, J and Leslie, J. (2002). Success for the New Global Manager: How to Work Across Distances, Countries and Cultures. Center for Creative Leadership. Jossey-Bass. I have placed two chapters from this book on blackboard. Chpt 2: "What you already know. Your essential capabilities"; Chpt. 3: "What you need to know. The pivotal capabilities" and Chpt 4: "What you can do". I think that chpt 3 and 4 are particularly worthwhile for those interested in expat development.
Earley, P. C. & Peterson, R. S. (2004). "The elusive cultural chameleon: Cultural intelligence as a new approach to intercultural training for the global manager". Academy of Management Learning and Education Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 100 - 115.
Fisher, S., Wasserman, M., & Palthe, J. (2007). Management practices for on-site consultants: Lessons learned from the expatriate experience. Consulting Psychology Journal, 59(1), 17-29.
Harvey, M., Novicevic, M. (2001). "Selecting expatriates for increasingly complex global assignments." Career Development International, 6(2), pp. 69-86.
**McCaughley, D, and Bruning, N. (2005). Enhancing opportunities for expatriate job satisfaction: HR strategies for foreign assignment success. Human Resource Planning, 28(4), pp 21 - 29.
Opiela, N. (2007). It's a small, small world: Planning for expatriates. Journal of Financial Planning, April, pp. 46-52. Note: This article focuses on financial issues associate with being an expatriate. While the financial discussion is a little outside the sphere of our course, it does illustrate an important factor that can affect expatriate adjustment and well being.
Rodrigues, C. "Developing expatriates' cross-cultural sensitivity: cultures where "your culture's OK is really not OK," The Journal of Management Development, 16(9), 690-702.
Shaffer, M., Harrison, D. (2001). "Forgotten partners of international assignments: Development and test of a model of spouse adjustment," Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(2), pp. 238-254.
*Stroh, L., Black, J., Mendenhall, M. and Gregersen, H. (2005). International Assignments: An integration of Strategy, Research & Practice, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. I have put two chapters from this book on blackboard -- Chpt. 2: "The process of cross-cultural adjustment" and Chpt 4, "Training: Helping people learn to do the right things".
Toh, S. &N DeNisi, A. (2007). Expatriate Selection, Development and Adjustment: Host country nationals as socializing agents: a social identity approach. Journal of Organizational Behavior; Vol. 28 (3), p281-301
Tye, M. and Chen, P. (2005). Selection of expatriates: Decision making models used by HR professionals. Human Resource Planning, 28(4), pp. 15 - 20.
Yamazaki, Y. and Kayes, D. C. (2004). "An experiential approach to cross-cultural learning: A review and integration of competencies for successful expatriate adaptation," Academy of Management Learning and Education. pp. 362-379.
Yurkiewicz, J and Rosen, B. (1995). "Increasing receptivity to expatriate assignments," Chpt 3 in Expatriate Management: New Ideas for International Business, Jan Selmer, Ed., Westport, CT, Quorum Books (HF 5549.5.E45 E97 1995).
Business Conditions and Issues
*American Chamber of Commerce. Czech Republic 2007. I will attach this adobe file with the syllabus. The 2008 report should be out soon.
*CERGE-EI. IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook Report - Czech Republic. (2003) (This is updated every few years, we may get a more recent edition soon). Listed as The Czech Republic Competitiveness Index on blackboard.
Garelli, S. Executive Summary and National Competitiveness Balance Sheet Report on the Czech Republic. World Competitiveness Yearbook 2003 (This is updated every few years, we may get the 2006 soon).
*Hevandly Research, Education and Consulting. IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook Report- Hungary. 2003 (on blackboard as Hungary Competitiveness Report).
**Lopez-Claros, Augustus. 2004 Global Competitiveness Report. (2004). This report includes competitiveness rankings for the Czech Republic and Hungry compared to 104 nations. On overall competitiveness, the CR ranks 40 and Hungary 39. (Guess who's number 1?) While you might skim the entire report, I think that the overall rankings and the rankings for the individual criteria are interesting.
*Peterson, R. (2003). "The use of expatriates and inpatriates in Central and Eastern Europe since the Wall came down." Journal of World Business, 38(1), pp. 55-69.
Human Resource Issues in Czech Republic and Hungary
Behr, M., Fata, E.., Kulcsar, A., Lassu, I., and Nagy, S. (2002). Who is Hungarian? Attitudes toward immigration, ethnicity, and nationality in rural Hungary". East European Quarterly, 36(3), pp. 281-299.
Czako, E. (1993) "Lessons of the US business schools for Hungary: A comparison." Journal of Management Development, 11(3), pp 48-55.
Kiriazov, Dimiter, Sullivan, Sherry and Tu, Howard. "Business Success in Eastern Europe: Understanding and customizing HRM." Business Horizons, Jan/Feb 2000.
Pearce, J. and Branyiczke, I. (1993). Revolutionizing bureaucracies: Managing change in Hungarian state-owned enterprises." Journal of Organizational Change Management, 6(2), pp 53-64.
Soulsby, Anna, Clark, Ed. (1996). "The emergence of post-communist management in the Czech Republic." Organization Studies, 17(2), pp. 227.
Stasek, F. (2005). Employee relations in the Czech Republic - past, present and future. Employee Relations, 27(6), 581-591.
Tardos, Katalina. (1998) "New strategies of human resource management in Hungary." Paper presented at The 10th Anniversary Conference of the International Management Center, Budapest, Hungary.
Additional References of Interest
Cakrt, M. "Management education in Eastern Europe: Toward mutual understanding. Academy of Management Executive, 1993, 7(4), pp. 63-68.
Jankowicz, D. Towards a Meaningful HRD Function in the Post-Command Economies of Central and Eastern Europe. Proceedings from the Academy of HRD Annual Conference, Washington D.C., March, 1999, pp. 318-326.
Meusburger, P., and Heike, J., (Eds). (2002). Transformation in Hungary: Essays in Economy and Society.
Rondinelli, D and Black, S. (2000). Multinational strategic alliances and acquisitions in Central and Eastern Europe: Partnerships in privatization. Academy of Management Executive, 14(4), 85-98.