Hal
Dr. Hal Wolman

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hwolman@gwu.edu

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GWIPP Research: Hal Wolman

This page features research funded through GWIPP and performed by Hal Wolman.

Hal Wolman is a professor in the Department of Political Science and the Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration at GW. He is a Non-Resident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution. a Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration, and a member of the MacArthur Foundation’s Building Resilient Regions network.

Dr. Wolman's fields of interest include urban and metropolitan policy and politics, local and regional economic development, state and local fiscal policy, and comparative urban policy and politics. Much of his work is interdisciplinary, drawing upon the fields of political science, policy analysis, and economics. He teaches Urban Problems and Policy Analysis, Urban Politics, and Politics and the Policy Process.

Professor Wolman holds a Ph.D in Political Science from the University of Michigan and a Master's in Urban Planning from M.I.T. Prior to coming to GW, Dr. Wolman was Director of the Policy Sciences graduate program at the University of Maryland-Baltimore County from 1997-2000. Before that, he was a professor of Political Science and Urban Affairs at Wayne State University. He also served as a Research Associate for the Urban Institute's Public Finance Program from 1978-1984.

Dr. Wolman also has experience in the world of public affairs and policy making, both as staff director of the House Subcommittee on the Cities and as a legislative assistant to Senator Adlai E. Stevenson. He was also Director of Research for the White House conference on Balanced Growth and Economic Development. He recently served as the staff consultant to the National Research Council's Committee on the Future of American Cities.

Professor Wolman's authored and edited books include Urban and Regional Policy and Its Effects (Brookings Institution, 2008) Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan Areas (National Academy Press, 1999), Theories of Urban Politics (Sage Publications, 1995), Urban Politics and Policy: A Comparative Approach (Basil Blackwell, 1992), and Comparing Housing Systems: Housing Performance and Housing Policy in the U.S. and Britain (Oxford University Press, 1992). Other research and publications explore regional economic resilience, the determinants of urban and regional economic growth, national urban policy, comparative urban policy and politics, local governments and fiscal autonomy, policy transfer among governments, the effect of population change on urban representation in Congress, city-suburban disparities in income and their causes, the relationship of cities to suburbs, the effect of mayoral change on public policy, and changing intergovernmental relations; as well as specific problems and policies in the areas of urban economic development, urban fiscal problems, housing and community development, urban labor markets, welfare, and transportation.


Title: National Grants System and Cities During the Great Recessions: Drawing Lessons from a Cross-National Analysis

Funding: German Marshall Fund of the United States

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman

Start Date: June 2012

Status: Current

Category: International and Comparative Policy, State and Local Fiscal Policy

Summary: The project examines the ways in which national grant systems have met the needs of city governments in the United States and developed Western nations during the Great Recession.  It tracks changes in national and intermediate level grants to local governments over the course of the recession in OECD countries and focuses particularly on national grant systems and their effects on local governments in the US, Italy, Spain, Germany, the UK, and Canada.  The comparison will provide useful and important lessons to national governments about the effects of grant systems on city governments.


Title: Regional Economic Resilience (click for more on the Building Resilient Region Network)

Funding: MacArthur Foundation (through the University of California-Berkeley)

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman, Pat Atkins, Sarah Ficenec, and Travis St. Clair

Start Date: June 2008

Status: Current

Category: Economic and Industrial Development Policy Studies, Urban Policy, Economic and Industrial Policy

Summary:  As part of the MacArthur Foundation’s project on regional resilience, the primary goals of our study are to identify through rigorous quantitative analysis economically resilient and economically non-resilient regions, to explore the differences between the two (why are some resilient and others not), and to come to some conclusions about the way in which regional economies can become more resilient.  In particular we are examining whether regions that have experienced negative economic shocks recover and, if so, how. We are also exploring through a set of intensive case studies the role of economic agency (private sector decision making in markets, hierarchies, and networks) and public policy, planning, and politics, in that process.

Product:

"Chronically-Distressed Metropolitan Area Economies," Travis St. Clair, Howard Wial (Brookings Institution), and Hal Wolman, April 2012. Paper presented at the annual meeting of The Urban Affairs Association, April 2012.

"Exploring Regional Economic Resilience." Ned Hill (Cleveland State University), Howard Wial (Brookings Institution), and Hal Wolman, April 2007. Paper presented at the annual meeting of The Urban Affairs Association, April 2008.

Working Paper 040 - Economic Shocks and Regional Economic Resilience. Edward Hill, Travis St. Clair, Howard Wial, Hal Wolman, Pat Atkins, Pamela Blumenthal, Sarah Ficenec, Alec Friedhoff, for Brookings, George Washington University, Urban Institute, Building Resilient Region Project conference on Urban and Regional Policy and Its Effects: Building Resilient Regions. Washington, DC, May 20-21, 2010.

Working Paper 043- Building Regional Economic Resilience: What Can We Learn from Other Fields. Sarah V. Ficenec. George Washington Institute of Public Policy (GWIPP). Draft December, 2010.

Working Paper 045- Building Economic Development Networks in Detroit: A Comparison of Methods of Social Network Analysis. Sarah Ficenec. George Washington Institute of Public Policy (GWIPP). Draft April, 2010.


Title: Significant Features of the Property Tax

Researcher(s): Charlotte Kirschner, Pat Atkins, Hal Wolman, Garry Young, Kristin Broughton, Dan Coogan, Matt Darst, Dillon Kiel, Lisa Lowry, Daniel Ramsey

Funding: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy

Start Date: June 2006

Status: Current

Category: Economic and Industrial Development Policy

Summary: This multi-year undertaking between the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy and GWIPP aims to provide a rich compendium of data and information for policymakers, practitioners, elected officials, researchers, and journalists on the local property tax in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.  It is inspired by and meant to replace, at least partially, the Significant Features of Fiscal Federalism report that the US Advisory Commission of Intergovernmental Relations (ACIR) published annually before the Commission was disbanded in 1996.  The online database makes it easy to compare features of the property tax across states or to learn about the property tax in detail for one or more specific states. Access to the database is available at no cost at: http://www.lincolninst.edu/subcenters/significant-features-property-tax/. The database currently provides features of the property tax as they were in calendar year 2006. These data will be updated annually, with 2007 and 2008 data expected to be released during the spring and summer 2010. 


GWIPP and Lincoln have held two property tax roundtables during the course of the project. The first round table brought property tax scholars from across the country to Washington, DC in October 2007 to discuss the erosion of the property tax base. The second roundtable, held in February 2009, examined the impacts of changes in the property tax on local autonomy.   GWIPP staff presented research papers at both roundtables. An edited volume from the first roundtable, “Erosion of the Property Tax Base: Trends, Causes, and Consequences,” was published in May 2009 and is available at http://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/1570_erosion-property-tax-base. The edited volume from the second roundtable is forthcoming.

Products:

Erosion of the Property Tax Base: Trends, Causes, and Consequences. Nancy Y. Augustine, Michael Bell, David Brunori, and Joan M. Youngman, 2009.

The Property Tax and Local Autonomy. Michael Bell, David Brunori, and Joan Youngman, editors, forthcoming.

Working Paper 027 - The Property Tax: Its Role and Significance in Funding State and Local Government Services, David Brunori, Richard Green, Michael Bell, Chanyung Choi, Bing Yuan, March 2006.

Working Paper 035 - Comparing Local Government Autonomy Across States. By Hal Wolman, Robert McManmon, Michael Bell, and David Brunori.


Title: Using Market Analysis of Home Values to Measure the Economic and Fiscal Effects of Multi-Use Trails

Researcher(s): Garry Young, Andrea Sarzynski, Joe Cordes, Hal Wolman, and Jeremy Larrieu

Funding: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

Start Date: January 2010

Status: Current

Category: Housing Policy

Summary: Multi-use trails encourage and facilitate physical activity among all age groups. Their separation from motorized traffic makes them especially attractive for families with children.  One concrete way to evaluate the economic benefit of trails to a community is to measure their impact on housing values. Does the presence of a trail affect housing prices? Does ease of access to a trail affect housing prices? In this proposed study we will estimate the economic impact of trail presence and access on housing values in Montgomery County, Maryland.  In addition, the study will use its findings to calculate the impact of property tax revenues produced by the trails and compare those values with the construction and maintenance costs of the trails borne by the Montgomery County government.


Title: Implementing Regionalism: Connecting Emerging Theory and Practice to Inform Economic Development

Funding: The SURDNA Foundation

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman, Robert Weissbord, RW Ventures, Andrea Sarzynski, Alice Levy, and Diana Hincapie

Start Date: February 2010

Status: Completed

Category: Urban and Regional Policy

Summary: The project will  undertake a thorough literature and case study review on regional systems and how they interact to bring about regional economic growth, organize the theoretical, empirical and case study literature into a coherent framework, and draw out the implications for economic development practice, including the types of emerging policies and programs that show signs of effectively driving positive economic outcomes. We will then convene leading national experts to vet and expand upon this work -- identifying further principles and successful practices for applying a regional framework to economic development of all kinds -- as well as to outline an applied research and product development agenda to fill remaining gaps in our collective knowledge and practice.

Work products:

Working Paper 041 - Spatial Efficiency and Regional Prosperity: A Literature Review and Policy Discussion. Andrea Sarzynski and Alice Levy. George Washington Institute of Public Policy (GWIPP). Draft August 16, 2010.

Working Paper 042- Cluster and Cluster-Based Development: A Literature Review and Policy Discussion. Hal Wolman and Diana Hincapie. George Washington Institute of Public Policy (GWIPP). Draft December 17th, 2010.

Working Paper 044- Government, Governance, and Regional Economic Growth. Hal Wolman and Alice Levy. George Washington Institute of Public Policy (GWIPP). Draft April, 2010.


Title:  Economic Competitiveness of Washington, DC and the Region

Funding:  District of Columbia Office of Revenue Analysis

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman, Garry Young, and Alice Levy

Start Date: June 2008

Status: Completed 

Category: Economic and Industrial Development Policy

Summary:  Our project asks what affects the economic competitiveness of the District of Columbia and why business establishments locate (or do not locate) in the District.  To answer these questions, our analysis considers the factors that affect the overall regional economy and the factors that affect the District given the state or nature of the regional economy.  The project will create a profile of the overall District economy as it relates to both the Washington metropolitan regional economy and the national economy.  In addition, we will interview establishments that have recently located or opened within the Washington region to explore the various factors (e.g., land costs, business regulations, taxes) that influenced the decision to locate in the region and the further decision to locate at a specific spot within the region (either in or out of the District).  Finally, we will produce a set of statistical models that predict economic performance for the region, and then for the District, that take into account the wide-range of factors that we know affect the economy, such as the nature of the local labor market, land costs, energy costs, taxation, transportation infrastructure, and so on. These models will give us the capacity to predict how changes in local conditions – including policy changes in areas such as taxation, education of the labor force, and business regulation – are likely to affect future economic performance.


Title: Assessing Change in Ohio’s Older Industrial Cities

Funding: The Brookings Institution

Researcher: Hal Wolman

Start Date: March 2008

Status: Completed 

Category: Economic and Industrial Development Policy Studies, Urban and Regional Policy

Summary:  The purpose of this study is  to assist Brookings’ Metropolitan Policy Program in examining the changing fortunes of Ohio’s older industrial cities since 1950.  The research traces decade by decade change in population, economic well-being, and industrial structure from 1950 onwards of Ohio cities that had a population of at least 20,000 as of 1950.  In addition, using the methodology developed for the prior national weak market study conducted by GWIPP for Brookings, we identify indicators of urban condition and performance and employ these indicators to develop a typology that places Ohio cities in categories of weak, moderate, and strong performers in an Ohio context.


Title: What Happens After Manufacturing Jobs Disappear? Non-Manufacturing Alternatives for Industrial Regions

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman, Nancy Y. Augustine, Pat Atkins, Leah Curran, Janet Stephens, Pamela Blumenthal, Howard Wial (Brookings Institution), and Alec Friedhoff (Brookings Institution)

Funding: Sloan Foundation

Start Date: November 2006

Status: Completed 

Category: Economic and Industrial Development Policy Studies

Summary: The continued loss of manufacturing jobs in the U.S. is a well-known and well-studied phenomenon that continues to be a concern to business, labor, elected officials and policymakers at all levels of government, and researchers. Yet we know relatively little about what happens in places that have lost manufacturing jobs. Have other jobs filled the vacuum, or is there a net loss of employment? If other jobs have replaced manufacturing jobs, what sectors have they been in, and how do wages in sectors where jobs have been gained compare to wages in the manufacturing sectors where jobs have been lost? What steps have the public sector, business and other sectors taken to change the industry, technological, and/or product mix of the metropolitan area economy, and how effective have those steps been? The study will focus on U.S. metropolitan areas that had concentrations of manufacturing jobs above the national average in 1990 and that lost manufacturing jobs between 1990 and 2005. It will describe the patterns of manufacturing job loss and non-manufacturing job gain (or, in a few cases, loss) that occurred in these areas. Through a set of case studies of eight metropolitan areas, it will then examine various policies and strategies by which government, business, and/or civic institutions sought to replace lost manufacturing jobs with new jobs in non-manufacturing industries.

Product:

Regional Policies and Strategies for Replacing Lost Manufacturing Jobs. Harold Wolman and Howard Wial, May 2009.


Title: Foreign Capital Cities and Their Relationship to the National Government: What Washington, DC Can Learn

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman, Garry Young, Jan Chadwick

Funding: Trellis Foundation

Start Date: January 2006

Status: Completed

Category: Washington Area Studies, International and Comparative Policy

Summary: The District of Columbia, as the capital of the United States, is in a unique set of circumstances with respect to other American cities, but it is not unique in the world. All countries have capital cities and they face many of the same problems as Washington, DC. The object of this study is to determine what can be learned from these cities and their relationship to their national governments that is relevant to the circumstances of Washington, DC, and will better inform the debate about the issues related to Washington's role as a capital city.

Product:

Working Paper 030 - Capital Cities and their National Governments: Washington, DC in Comparative Retrospective. Hal Wolman, Jan Chadwick, Anna Karruz, Julia Friedman, Garry Young, July 2007.


Title:  Economic Competitiveness and the Determinants of Sub-National Economic Activity: A Literature Review

Funding:  District of Columbia Office of Revenue Analysis

Researcher(s): Garry Young

Start Date: June 2008

Status: Completed

Category: Economic and Industrial Development Policy Studies

Summary: A review of existing theory and research findings on regional and local competitive advantage and on firm location decisions.  The purpose of the literature review was to inform the development of a proposal to study economic competitiveness in the Washington, DC region.

Products:

Working Paper 033 - Literature Review on the Determinants of Residential Employment. Alice Levy, Robert Darst, Hal Wolman, and Garry Young, October 2008.

Working Paper 034 - Economic Competitiveness and the Determinants of Sub-National Area Economic Activity. Hal Wolman, Alice Levy, Garry Young, and Pamela Blumenthal, September 2008.


Title:  The Determinants of Residential Employment: A Literature Review

Funding:  District of Columbia Office of Revenue Analysis

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman, Garry Young, Alice Levy, Matt Darst

Start Date: June 2008

Status: Completed 

Category: Social Policy, Housing Policy

Summary: A review of existing theory and research findings on the determinants of employment for individuals and the probability of employment for individuals with specific characteristics.  The purpose of the literature review is to inform the development of a proposal to study the determinants of employment for residents of Washington, DC.

Product:

Working Paper 033 - Literature Review on the Determinants of Residential Employment. Alice Levy, Robert Darst, Hal Wolman, and Garry Young, October 2008.


Title: The Effect of State and Local Fiscal Policy on Local Economic Development

Funding: National Center for Real Estate Research

Researcher(s): David Brunori, Michael Bell, Hal Wolman, Joe Cordes, and Richard Green, School of Business (now at USC)

Start Date: August 2004

Status: Completed

Category: Economic and Industrial Development Policy Studies

Summary: Provide a synthesis and critique of current knowledge and research on 1) the factors driving local economic growth and development and 2) the effects of state and local fiscal policy upon local economic growth and development. The report will make clear where there is clear consensus, where there is disagreement, and where research is currently lacking.

Product:

Working Paper 026 - State and Local Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth and Development. Michael Bell, David Brunori, Richard Green, Hal Wolman, Joe Cordes, and Tanya Qadir, August 2005.


Title: The Ingredients for Successful and Vibrant Cities

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman, Royce Hanson, Pamela Blumenthal, Nancy Y. Augustine (GWIPP) and Ned Hill (Cleveland State University)

Funding: CEOs for Cities

Start Date: September 2005

Status: Completed

Summary:
What are the ingredients that go into making a city successful? What public policy processes, investment strategies, and political actions are required to support the ingredients for city success? Affiliates of CEOs for Cities, a network of elected and appointed officials and business leaders in American cities, are being asked these questions to provide insight on the policies that help cities achieve success and help prioritize the allocation of political energy, capital, and financial resources to promote city renewal.

Products:

Blumenthal et. al, "Ingredients for Successful and Vibrant Cities," Report to CEOs for Cities, June 16th, 2008.

Wolman et. al, "Bringing Urban Leaders Together for Effective Change: What We Know." October 27th, 2006.

Blumenthal, P., Hill, E., and Wolman, H., “ Understanding the Economic Performance of Metropolitan Areas in the United States,” Urban Studies, March, 2009, pp. 605-627.

Wolman, H., Hill, E., Blumenthal, P., and Furdell, K., “Understanding Economically Distressed Cities,” in R. McGahey and J. Vey (eds.), Retooling for Growth: Building a 21st Century Economy in America’s Industrial Regions, Brookings Institution Press, 2008 pp. 151-178.

Curran, L.; Wolman, H.; Hill, E.; and Furdell, K, “Economic Well-Being and Where We Live:
Accounting for Geographic Cost of Living Differences,” Urban Studies, December, 2006,
pp. 2443-2466.


Title: State and Local Fiscal Systems Face the Future

Funding: National Association of Realtors

Researchers: Hal Wolman, David Brunori, Michael Bell, Pat Atkins, Joe Cordes, and Bing Juan

Start Date: July 2005

Status: Completed

Category: State and Local Fiscal Policy

Summary: The project will examine recent trends in state and local revenues and expenditures and the current condition of state and local finances. In particular, it will assess the likely impact of foreseeable or potential future economic, social, political and technological changes on state and local revenues and expenditures.

Product:

Working Paper 025 - State and Local Fiscal Trends and Future Threats, David Brunori, Michael E. Bell, Hal Wolman, Patricia Atkins, Joseph J. Cordes, and Bing Yuan, 2005.


Title: Weak Market Cities: Research for the Brookings Institution’s “ America’s Core Cities” Project

Funding: The Brookings Institution

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman and Kimberly Furdell, Ned Hill (Cleveland State University), Nancy Y. Augustine, and Pamela Blumenthal

Start Date:

Research: Completed

Summary: Preparation of a report for the Brookings Institution’s “The Campaign for America’s Core Cities: Research and Policy Development” project. The paper will define “weak market cities”; develop methodologies for identifying and ranking cities along a number of indicators of performance; create a statistically-based typology for weak market cities; and explain differences among core cities in terms of their condition in 2000 and performance between 1990 and 2000.

The current phase of the project broadens the scope of the original study to further characterize the differences between "weak market" and "non-weak market" cities, develop models to uncover which characteristics may have a causal relationship with key aspects of economic and residential health, and then expand analysis to examine  additional cities within this framework.

Products:

Wolman, H., Hill, E., Blumenthal, P., and Furdell, K., “Understanding Economically Distressed Cities,” in R. McGahey and J. Vey (eds.), Retooling for Growth: Building a 21st Century Economy in America’s Industrial Regions, Brookings Institution Press, 2008 pp. 151-178.

Working Paper 032 - Understanding the Economic Performance of Metropolitan Areas in the United States. Pamela Blumenthal, Edward (Ned) Hill, and Hal Wolman, January 2008.

Working Paper 021 - Toward Understanding Urban Pathology: Creating a Typology of 'Weak Market' Cities, Kimberly Furdell and Hal Wolman, April 2006.

Working Paper 018 - Economic Well-being and Where We Live: Accounting for Geographic Cost-of-living Differences, Leah Curran, Harold Wolman, Edward W. (Ned) Hill and Kimberly Furdell, April 2005.


Title: Central City Population Loss and State Legislative Influence: Are City-Suburban Coalitions the Answer?

Funding: The Brookings Institution

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman, Nicholas Lyon, Margaret Weir (University of California-Berkeley), Todd Swanstrom (University of Missouri-St. Louis)

Start Date: April 2005

Status: Completed

Category: Urban Policy

Summary: As central cities have lost population relative to the rest of the state (and particularly to suburbs), their representation in state legislatures has decreased. How have cities attempted to respond to this loss of representation in an effort to retain their influence? The research explores the extent to which cities have attempted to achieve regional coalitions with their suburbs, as advocated by some analysts such as Myron Orfield who argue that cities and some of their suburbs increasingly share common interests. We selected major cities in four states: Illinois, Michigan, New York, and Ohio. Through interviews with mayoral aides, state legislators, and other actors as well as analysis of documents and roll call votes on important issues, we assessed the extent to which cities have engaged in coalitions with their suburbs and, more generally, what geographic areas or interests they do form coalitions with.

For more information about the Brookings Institution, visit www.brookings.edu.

Product:

Working Paper 003 - Cities and State Legislatures: Changing Coalitions and the Metropolitan Agenda, Harold Wolman, Todd Swanstrom, Margaret Weir, & Nicholas Lyon


Title: Lessons Learned in Homeland Security

Funding: Homeland Security Institute

Researchers: Hal Wolman

Start Date: October 2004

Status: Completed

Category: Homeland Security Policy

Summary: This project involves mining relevant information repositories to construct a qualitative database of the Lessons Learned from catastrophes, both man-made and natural, with an eye towards recognizing trends and patterns in problems and solutions.


Title: Soft Metrics for Critical Infrastructure Protection (Research Design)

Funding: Homeland Security Institute

Researchers:

Start Date: October 2004

Status: Completed

Category: Homeland Security Policy

Summary: This project involves creating a research design with two components. In the first component the GWIPP team will produce a survey methodology for measuring how the American people rank order national icons – such as national monuments, federal buildings, and significant natural landmarks – in terms of importance. In the second component the GWIPP team will develop a design for exploring how to measure the impact of a major terrorist attack on public perception in four areas – national security, governance, public confidence, and economic scope and duration.


Title: Fiscal Disparities among Local Governments in Metropolitan Areas: Their Extent and Causes

Funding: US Department of Housing and Urban Development

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman, Pat Atkins, Michael Bell, Joe Cordes, and Leah Curran

Start Date: August 2004

Status: Completed

Category: State and Local Fiscal Policy

Summary: The project explores the extent to which fiscal disparities exist among local jurisdictions within different kinds of metropolitan areas and why these disparities exist. We are particularly interested in the extent of fiscal disparities among suburban jurisdictions as well as between suburban jurisdictions and central cities. We calculate disparities among local governments in a small, regionally representative set of metropolitan areas. We also explore the characteristics of metropolitan areas that are associated with greater fiscal disparities. Finally, we will discuss the policy implications of these findings

Product:

Working Paper 019 - Intrametropolitan Area Revenue Raising Disparities and Equities, Patricia Atkins, Leah Curran, Michael Bell, Harold Wolman, and Joseph Cordes, 2005.


Title: Intra-Metropolitan Area Fiscal Capacity Disparities and the Property Tax: The Washington DC Region

Funding: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy

Researcher(s):

Start Date: August 2004

Status: Completed

Category: State and Local Fiscal Policy, Washington Area Studies

Summary: The study adapts a methodology developed by the U.S. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, to calculate disparities in the revenue capacity of local governments in the Washington,DC area. It then estimates the effect a shift to a real property tax on land only would have on these disparities. We found that the major disparities were between suburban jurisdictions; Washington D.C., the core center city in the metropolitan area, had an average revenue capacity. When revenue capacity was recalculated assuming a real property tax on land only, we found this had a slight positive effect on ameliorating differences in revenue-rising ability.


Title: State and Local Infrastructure Financing

Funding: National Center for Real Estate Research, National Association of Realtors

Researchers: Hal Wolman, Michael Bell, David Brunori, Royce Hanson, Chanyong Choi, Lori Metcalf, and Bing Yuan

Start Date: August 2004

Status: Completed

Category: State and Local Fiscal Policy

Summary: The report consists of four parts: The first part presents data on aggregate state and local infrastructure spending for the nation and for the fifty states individually. We define infrastructure to include highways (including streets and bridges), mass transit, air transportation, water transportation, water supply and sewerage. We collect and report spending trends for each category of infrastructure, including total spending by category and capital spending by category for the most recent year available (2002). The second part examines recent trends in federal intergovernmental assistance to state and local governments for infrastructure purposes. The third part is a literature review in order to develop a general understanding of the various financing mechanism used by state and local governments to finance infrastructure spending. The concluding part is an extensive literature review of the mechanisms available to state and local governments to undertake prioritization of infrastructure needs.

Product:

Working Paper 028 - State and Local Infrastructure Financing, Mike Bell, David Brunori, Royce Hanson, Chanyong Choi, Lori Metcalf, and Bing Yuan, November 2005


Title: Corporate Citizenship and Urban Problem Solving: The Changing Civic Role of Business Leaders in American Cities

Funding: The Brookings Institution

Researcher(s): Royce Hanson, Hal Wolman, David Connally, Katherine Pearson

Start Date: July 2004

Status: Completed

Category: Urban Policy

Summary: Historically, business leaders have played a major role in the building, rebuilding, and public policy of major American cities. However, recent urban literature has frequently asserted that there has been increasing disengagement of corporate leaders from civic efforts. In this study we identified and documented common patterns in the changes that have occurred in corporate citizenship and executive participation in civic affairs; analyzed factors that explain these changes in the structure, management, and organizational culture of firms; conducted two intensive case studies (Baltimore and Cleveland) that describe the responses of business leaders and their peak civic organizations to changes in membership, public leadership and agendas, and economic and social circumstances; and draw lessons that can be applied by business and political leaders seeking to establish and maintain public-private coalitions that are effective in resolving critical urban problems.

Products:

Hanson, R.; Wolman, H; Connolly, D.; McManmon, R.; and Pearson, K, “Corporate Citizenship and Urban Problem Solving: The Changing Civic Role of Business Leaders in American Cities,” Journal of Urban Affairs, forthcoming.


Title: The Effect of State Policy on Urban Performance

Funding: The Fannie Mae Foundation

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman and Kimberly Furdell (GWIPP), and Ned Hill (Cleveland State University).

Start Date: September 2004

Status: Completed

Category: Urban Policy

Summary: To what extent and how does state government policy affect the performance of major cities within the state on a wide variety of indicators of resident well-being? The project will proceed by first identifying cities that have performed well between 1990-2000 on each of a series of 20 indicators (e.g., change in poverty rate, unemployment rate, housing affordability, crime rate, etc.). It will then model performance on each of these indicators to identify cities that performed better than the model would have predicted. Case studies will then be conducted to assess whether this better than expected performance was due to state (or city) policies directed at the state’s cities.

Products:

Working Paper 016 - State Policy Effects on Urban Performance. Kimberly Furdell, Hal Wolman, Ned Hill, and Elaine Weiss, April 2005.

Working Paper 020 - Explaining City Performance: How Important is State Policy? Pamela Blumenthal, Kimberly Furdell, Elaine Weiss, and Hal Wolman, April 2006.

Working Paper 029 - What Explains Central City Performance? Hal Wolman, Ned Hill (Cleveland State University), Pat Atkins, Pamela Blumenthal, Kimberly Furdell, and Elaine Weiss, February 2007 (revised).

"States and Their Cities: Partnerships for the Future." Hal Wolman, Ned Hill, Patricia Atkins, Pamela Blumenthal, Leah Beth Curran, Kimberly Furdell, Jo Anne Schneider, and Elaine Weiss, 2007.

"State Policy Effects on Urban Performance." Kimberly Furdell, Hal Wolman, Ned Hill, and Elaine Weiss, April 2005. Paper presented at the annual meeting of The Urban Affairs Association, April 2008.


Title: Did Central Cities Come Back?

Funding: Fannie Mae Foundation

Researchers: Hal Wolman, Kimberly Furdell, and Ned Hill (Cleveland State)

Start Date:

Status: Completed

Category: Urban Policy

Summary: During the late 1990s, commentators frequently heralded the comeback of America’s cities. This project examined the extent to which cities that were distressed in the 1980s could be said to have “come back” by the year 2000. It then modeled the economic and social structural determinants of city performance between 1980-2000 and identified those cities that performed significantly better or worse than the model would have predicted. Finally, it speculated on the reasons for these divergent performances – and particularly whether city or state policy could have played a role - and suggested a strategy for pursuing research to test these speculations. A paper, “Have Central Cities Come Back” was presented at the 2004 Urban Affairs Association Conference in Washington, DC on April 2, 2004.
Click here for the report.

Product:

Working Paper 005 - Have central cities come back?, Kimberly Furdell, Edward W. (Ned) Hill, and Harold Wolman.


Title: Managing Growth and Workforce Housing in Edge Counties

Funding: Fannie Mae Foundation

Start Date: June 2002

Category: Planning, Growth Management, and Sprawl

Status: Completed

Summary: Researcher(s) completed detailed interviews with the primary policy officials responsible for growth management and affordable workforce housing in 37 of the fastest growing counties, including county managers, county executives, and chief county planners. Conversations with these officials show that much of their work continues to occur within planning tools and laws developed before rapid growth began, and that this situation increases their work load and reduces their capacity to respond in a comprehensive and strategic manner. These rapidly growing areas – with an onslaught of governance, fiscal and commercial decisions on land use – overtake the available community resources able to be devoted to handling growth and ensuring adequate housing supply. While factors such as sufficient amounts of developable land clearly deflate the immediate magnitude of growth and housing problems, the few counties with cohesive urban management plans better deploy resources and prepare for their fast-growth future.

Product:

Atkins, Patricia. Managing Growth and Workforce Housing in Edge Counties: Findings of Fannie Mae Foundation Edge County Interviews. Conducted by Patricia Atkins, Jessica Jordan. and Hal Wolman. November 11, 2003.


Title: Evaluating the Success of Urban Success Stories of the 1990s

Funding: Fannie Mae Foundation

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman, Kimberly Furdell, and Ned Hill (Cleveland State)

Start Date: November 2001

Status: Completed

Category: Urban Policy

Summary: The project studied “urban success stories” which are defined as cities that gain the reputation of having rebounded from adversity, overcome their distressed condition, and experienced revitalization. The research evaluated the extent to which the well-being of the residents of these perceived “urban success story” cities actually improves as a result of the presumed success.

Products:

"Evaluating the Success of Urban Success Stories: Is Reputation a Guide to Best Practice?" Harold Wolman, Ned Hill, and Kimberly Furdell, 2004; Housing Policy Debate, 2005.

"Did Central Cities Come Back? Which Ones, How Far, and When?" Kimberly Furdell, Hal Wolman, and Ned Hill. Journal of Urban Affairs, 27(3), 283-306.

Working Paper 005 - Have Central Cities Come Back? Kimberly Furdell, Ned Hill, and Harold Wolman.


Title: Measuring Progress in the Greater Washington Region: 2001 Potomac Index

Funding: Brookings Institution

Researcher(s): Pat Atkins, Hal Wolman

Start Date: May 2001

Status: Completed

Category: Washington Area Studies

Summary: America Online, Community Foundation for the National Capital Region, Meyer Foundation, Pricewaterhouse Coopers LLP. The 2001 Potomac Index charted the Washington region’s progress on a series of indicators grouped around five major themes. Research indicators show that the Greater Washington region has a strong economy, a highly educated population, and an extensive educational, philanthropic and nonprofit sector. It lags in performance on other indicators with a shortage of affordable housing, poor water quality in the Anacostia River, significant traffic congestion, poor air quality, and consumption of land in excess of population growth. A survey conducted for the Index showed that four out of five residents rate the region as an excellent, very good, or good place to live.

Product:

Atkins, Patricia & Wolman, Hal. "Education and Lifelong Learning." 2001 Potomac Index: Measuring Progress in the Greater Washington Region. Brookings Greater Washington Research Program.


Title: Defining and Measuring Sprawl

Funding: Fannie Mae Foundation

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman, Royce Hanson, George Galster (Wayne State), and Michael Ratcliffe (US Census Bureau)

Start Date: January 2001

Status: Completed

Category: Planning, Growth Management, and Sprawl

Summary: This project reviewed the literature on sprawl and concluded that it was a poorly defined and ambiguous concept. It then defined sprawl conceptually and operationalized it as seven patterns of land use, each of which consisted of a continuum ranging from very sprawl-like to very unsprawl-like. Each of these dimensions was then operationalized so that it could be calculated for urbanized areas. As an illustration, calculations on each of the dimensions were made for 13 urbanized areas and a standardized sprawl score was calculated for each.

Product:

Galster, G., Hanson, R., Ratcliffe, M., Wolman, H. Published in Housing Policy Debate: “Wrestling Sprawl to the Ground: Defining and Measuring an Elusive Concept." 2001, v. 12 #4.


Title: Ranking Areas by Dimensions of Sprawl

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman, Royce Hanson, George Galster (Wayne State), Michael Ratcliffe (US Census Bureau), and Jackie Cutsinger (Wayne State)

Funding: U.S. Geological Survey

Start Date:

Status: Completed

Summary: The project measured sprawl on seven dimensions for a sample of 50 of the largest US Extended Urban Areas. It then applied factor analysis to derive a set of factors combining the dimensions and calculated the “sprawl” scores for each of the 50 areas for each of the factors. A paper, “Verifying Sprawl’s Distinct Dimensions,” was presented at the 2004 meeting of the Urban Affairs Association, Washington, DC, on April 2, 2004.

Product:

"Verifying Sprawl’s Distinct Dimensions,” presented at the 2004 meeting of the Urban Affairs Association, Washington, DC, on April 2, 2004.


Title: Focus on Success: How do Children from Poor Families Escape from Poverty?

Funding: University of Maryland Baltimore County - The Ford Foundation

Researcher(s): Hal Wolman, Nancy Augustine, George Galster (Wayne State), David Marcote (UMBC), and Marvin Mandell (UMBC)

Start Date: October 2000

Status: Completed

Category: Social Policy

Summary: What accounts for the fact that some children who grow up in very poor households in a very poor neighborhood, nonetheless succeed? To answer this question we utilize PSID, a panel database, and follow the cohort of children born between 1967-1974 into their adulthood. We examine the adult outcomes of these children – income, employment, educational attainment, etc. – and, using simultaneous equation models, test the relative impact of parental background characteristics, parental behavior, neighborhood effects, social capital, and housing tenure as a child on adult outcomes.

Products:

Galster, G., Marcotte, D., Mandell, M., Wolman, H., and Augustine, N., “The Impact of Parental Homeownership on Children’s Outcomes during Early Adulthood,” Housing Policy Debate, 2007, Vol. 18 (4) pp. 785-828.

Galster, G.; Marcotte, D.; Mandell, M.; Wolman, H.; and Augustine, N., “The Influence of Neighborhood Poverty During Childhood on Fertility, Education, and Earnings Outcomes,” Housing Studies, 2007, V. 22 (Sept.), pp. 723-751.