Geography museums and exhibitions are promoted at a time when large public museums of many types are being established and international exhibitions held, during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Geographic exhibitions are encouraged from the scale of the classroom to entire sections of the National (Smithsonian) Museum in Washington, D.C. (Betts, De Riemer, Ridgley, Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Reinhard); even statisticians recognize and promote the power of maps to communicate geographical data (Storey). No geography museums/exhibitions in the United States, however, approach the lines of those realized or suggested by the Scotsman Patrick Geddes (1854-1932) with his Outlook Tower in Edinburgh, several civic exhibitions, and Institute for Geography (Geddes).
Significant components of many of the international exhibitions-world’s fairs held in the United States during this period are quite explicitly geographic. The United States Centennial Exhibition, the nation’s first important international fair, held at Philadelphia in 1876, attempts to spatially array exhibits in global-scale geographic order to assist visitors encompassing all of Earth’s human geographic diversity within the single locality of the fairgrounds. Objects included in the United States federal government’s exhibition are models of pre-historic Native American settlements in the Southwest, prepared by the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories (Hayden Survey), and a copy of the Statistical Atlas of the United States, the nation’s first national atlas, which includes the magnificent series of maps depicting the geographic evolution of Euro-American settlement from 1790 through the census of 1870 (see Statistical Atlas entry at 1874).
As American industry turns from the North American continent to seek global-scale markets, one museum/institution in particular emerges with a strong economic geography theme. The Philadelphia Commercial Museum is characterized as “a catalogue raisonné of the world, from the point of view of the American exporter” (Branford). Initiated by Professor William P. Wilson, University of Pennsylvania, it incorporates some 24 railroad car loads of objects from Chicago’s Columbian World Exhibition of 1893; sponsors classes and special and touring exhibits, including the permanent Philadelphia Panorama; and establishes a global network of nearly 100,000 agents feeding information back to Philadelphia.
The Philadelphia Commercial Museum opens in 1897 to great fanfare, complete with an address by William McKinley, President of the United States – “The Museum is inaugurated on broad and progressive lines; its authors and promoters mean that the conditions for international commerce shall be directly promoted by systematic study, and demonstrated by scientific methods” (Conn). Among its remarkable achievements prior to fading in the mid-1920s, the museum hosts an International Commercial Congress in 1899 that attracts over 1.2 million visitors and official delegations from over 30 foreign governments (Branford, Betts, Conn).
[Ernest Ingersoll. The Making of a Museum. The Century 29 (January 1885): 354-369; Alicia De Riemer. The Educational Value of Geographical Museums. Journal of Geography 2 (March 1903): 136-143; Douglas C. Ridgley. The School Excursion and the School Museum as Aids in the Teaching of Geography Journal of Geography 3 (September 1904): 322-333; Benjamin Semenov-Tian-Shansky. The Geographical Museum. Geographical Review 19 (1929): 642-648; Rudolf Reinhard. The Museum of Regional Geography in Liepzig. Geographical Review 24 (April 1934): 219-231;Charles J. Storey. The Technique of Public Statistical Exhibits. Publications of the American Statistical Association 14 (March 1914): 49-53; Patrick Geddes. Nature Study and Geographical Education. Scottish Geographical Magazine 18 (October 1902): 525-536; Patrick Geddes. Civic Observatory and Laboratory in the Outlook Tower in Edinburgh. In Cities in Evolution. London: Ernest Benn, 1915. Pp. 321-327; Patrick Geddes. Note on Draft Plan for Institute of Geography. Scottish Geographical Magazine 18 (March 1902): 142-144, with comments by J. G. Bartholomew. A Plea for a National Institute of Geography. Scottish Geographical Magazine 18 (March 1902): 144-148, and others by others in Proposed National Institute of Geography [letters from James Bryce, Clements Markham, Archibald Geike]. Suggested Plan for a National Institute of Geography. Scottish Geographical Magazine 18 (April 1902): 217-221; Bruno Giberti. Designing the Centennial: a History of the 1876 International Exhibition in Philadelphia. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2002; Allen Pred. Spectacular Articulations of Modernity: the Stockholm Exhibition of 1897. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 73B (1991): 45-84; Robert W. Rydell All the World’s a Fair: Visions of Empire at American International Expositions, 1876-1916. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984; Victor V. Branford. The Philadelphia Commercial Museum. Scottish Geographical Magazine 18 (May 1802): 243-252; W. Colgrove Betts. The Philadelphia Commercial Museum. Journal of Political Economy 8 (March 1900): 222-233; Steven Conn. The Philadelphia Commercial Museum: a Museum to Conquer the World. In Museums and American Intellectual Life, 1876-1926. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. Pp. 115-150, 276-281.]
The scholarly journal Bulletin of the American Bureau of Geography begins publication. Published from 1900 through 1901 (two volumes), the journal combines with the Journal of School Geography in 1902 to become the Journal of Geography.
The scholarly journal Journal of Geography begins publication when the Journal of School Geography and the Bulletin of the American Bureau of Geography combine. Publication of the Journal of Geography, which in 1920 is assumed by the National Council of Geography Teachers (later renamed National Council for Geographic Education), continues to the present.
Geographic Influence in American History by Albert Perry Brigham (1855-1932) and American History and Its Geographic Conditions by Ellen Churchill Semple (1863-1932), two landmark publications in American geographic scholarship, are published in the same year. The two books provide initial accounts by geographers of the role of physical geography, and in Semple's case both physical and human geography, in the historical development of the United States. They are viewed by contemporaries as updating the numerous works produced in the United States throughout nineteenth-century that relate geography and history during western civilization's Biblical, ancient, medieval, modern and American periods.
The historian Albert Hart Bushnell notes in his review of the two works-"Professor Brigham's [book] is the work of an expert scientific man who loves the face of his country and who wants his countrymen to see how much it affects national life... Miss Semple's book is much less precise and authoritative, but it brings together for the service on the student and general reader a wealth of material hitherto unclassified and often unavailable, upon the function of man in overcoming the obstacles which nature set to the occupation of this continent... It is a book extremely useful to shoe who have been in the habit of thinking of their country in the flat, of seeing on the map only artificial subdivisions which you cross over as you travel, without being aware of them. She takes America as part of the earth surface, connected rather than divided by great oceans, with lands to the eastward and to the westward."
Commenting on Semple's book in 1933, Charles C. Colby indicates that the book "won wide acceptance as a text in courses in the historical geography of the United States and still is in active use." Demand for the book results in a revised edition in a collaboration between Semple and Clarence F. Jones appearing three decades after initial issue, which is accompanied by a Manual, prepared by Jones that includes questions, exercises, and maps to assist classroom instruction.
[Albert Perry Brigham. Geographic Influence in American History. Boston: Ginn and Co., 1903; Ellen Churchill Semple. American History and Its Geographic Conditions. Boston: Houghton Mifflin and Co., 1903; Albert Bushnell Hart. Review [of Geographic Influences in American History and American History and Its Geographic Conditions]. American Historical Review 9 (April 1904): 571-572; Review [of American History and Its Geographic Conditions and Geographic Influences in American History]. Political Science Quarterly 19 (September 1904): 501-502; Frederick J. Turner. Geographical Interpretation of American History. Journal of Geography 4 (January 1905): 34-37; Ellen Churchill Semple. American History and Its Geographic Conditions. Revised in collaboration with the author by Clarence F. Jones. Boston: Houghton Mifflin and Co., 1933; Clarence F. Jones. Manual to Accompany American History and Its Geographic Conditions. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1933.]
University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois establishes a Department of Geography, the first independent geography program granting the Ph.D. degree in the United States, in 1903. The department becomes the Committee on Geographical Studies in 1986. The department’s landmark monograph series, Research Papers, is initiated in 1948, and continues as the University of Chicago Geography Research Papers, a publication of the University of Chicago Press. Over 230 monographs are published by 2000.
[www.uchicago.edu; Alice Foster, Charles C. Colby, Robert S. Platt, Jesse H. Wheeler, Jr., C. W. Sorensen. In A Half Century of Geography—What Next? Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1955; William D. Pattison. Rollin Salisbury and the Establishment of Geography at the University of Chicago. In Brian W. Blouet. ed. The Origins of Academic Geography in the United States. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1981, pp. 151-163; Chauncy D. Harris. Geography of the University of Chicago in the 1930s and 1940s. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 69 (March 1979): 21-32; Harold M. Mayer. Urban Geography and Chicago in Retrospect. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 69 (March 1979): 114-118.]
University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, Alabama establishes a Department of Geography in 1903. The first geography course taught at the university, Geography, was offered the same year the university was established in 1831. [www.ua.edu]
Association of American Geographers is established in Philadelphia. The purpose of the organization, according to its constitution, is "the cultivation of the scientific study of geography in all its branches, especially by promoting acquaintance, intercourse and discussion among its members, by encouraging and aiding geographical exploration and research, by assisting the publication of geographical essays, by developing better conditions for the study of geography in schools, colleges, and universities, and by cooperating with other societies in the development of an intelligent interest in geography among the people of North America."
[Preston E. James and Geoffrey J. Martin. The Association of American Geographers: The First Seventy-Five Years 1904-1979. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1978. Pp. 221.]
Eighth International Geographical Congress, the first to be convened in the United States, meets September 2-22 in five American cities-Washington, Philadelphia, New York City, Chicago, and St. Louis-with a stopover at Niagara Falls. The first International Geographical Congress was convened in Antwerp in 1871. While in St. Louis, site of that summer's Olympic Games, International Geographical Congress geographers attend the Louisiana Purchase Exposition World's Fair and participate with scientists from around the world in sessions of the Exposition's International Congress of Arts and Science.
[Henry Gannett. ed. Report of the Eighth International Geographic Congress, Held in the United States, 1904. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1905; Geoffrey J. Martin. One Hundred and Twenty Five Years of Geographical Congresses and the Formation of the International Geographical Union: or, from Antwerp to The Hague. Bulletin of the International Geographical Union 46 (1996): 5-26; Howard J. Rogers. ed. Congress of Arts and Science, Universal Exposition, St. Louis, 1904. 8 vols. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1905-07; David R. Francis. The Universal Exposition of 1904. 2 vols. St. Louis: Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, 1913; A. W. Coats. American Scholarship Comes of Age: The Louisiana Purchase Exposition 1904. Journal of the History of Ideas 22 (July-September): 404-417.]
United States joins with other countries to produce the International Map of the World (IMW) at the scale of 1:1,000,000. First proposed by Albrecht Penck (1858-1945) of the University of Vienna at the fifth International Geographical Congress held in Berne in 1891, this multi-nation undertaking calls for mapping the world at a uniform scale, requiring nearly 1,000 map sheets. Though much discussed at subsequent congresses, little substantive progress is made until the eighth International Geographical Congress in Washington, D.C., when Henry Gannett is selected to chair a committee charged with preparing mapping standards for the project. Standards are prepared and accepted at the ninth International Geographical Congress held in Geneva in 1908, and subsequently revised several times. The U.S. Geological Survey issues its first IMW sheet in 1912, but prepares only twelve of the 60 land-surface sheets required to cover the United States. The U.S. Army Map Service (currently National Imaging and Mapping Agency) eventually prepares all 60 of the U.S. land-surface sheets in close conformity with the IMW standards. The American Geographical Society contributes the 107-sheet Map of Hispanic America to the IMW project (see American Geographical Society entry at 1922). With just over 850 of the 974 sheets required to cover the world's land surface completed, the United Nations terminates the IMW project in 1987 (Winchester).
[Albrecht Penck. The Construction of a Map of the World on a Scale of 1:1,000,000. Geographical Journal 1 (1893): 253-261; Anon. Map of the United States on a Scale of 1:1,000,000. Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 37 (1905): 730-732; Anon. The Ninth International Geographical Congress. Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 40 (November 1908): 679-681); Maps of the United States at the Scale of 1:1,000,000. Washington: U. S. Geological Survey, 1968; Michael Heffernan. Geography, Cartography and Military Intelligence: the Royal Geographical Society and the First World War. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers n.s. 21 (1996): 504-533; Simon Winchester. Taking the World's Measure: Cartography's Greatest Undertaking Survived Wars and Bureaucratic Snarls Only to Die When It Was Nearly Done. Civilization 2 (November/December 1995): 56-59.]
The nation’s first automobile-age road map, the landmark The Country round New York, is prepared in 1904 by Rand McNally and Co. for automobilists, the term then applied to weekend motorists who toured the countryside outside cities. The American Automobile Association, founded just two years earlier in Chicago, produces its first road map, depicting Staten Island, New York, in 1905. Rand McNally and Co., American Automobile Association, and numerous other firms and organizations will come to produce thousands of individual maps, guides, road map atlases, and digital electronic atlases, all aimed at assisting motorists to discover the geographic features of America.
The nation’s first road map, in the sense of a map featuring roads, predates automobile-age efforts by over a century. Christopher Colles (1738-1816) receives this honor for his atlas of maps, A Survey of the Roads of the United States of America, published in 1789. This landmark atlas of 83 maps presents a rich array of geographic information along roads that connect Albany, New York and Annapolis, Maryland.
[Andy Newman. First Came the Car; Then the Wrong Turn; Voilà: the Map. New York Times 11 October 2000; Christopher Colles. A Survey of the Roads of the United States of America, edited by Walter W. Ristow. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1961, original atlas of 83 maps at a scale of approximately 1:35,000 was published in New York in 1789; Walter W. Ristow. American Road Maps and Guides. The Scientific Monthly (May 1946): 397-406; Douglas A. Yourke, Jr. and John Margolis. Hitting the Road: the Art of the American Road Map. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 1996; www.randmcnally.com ; www.aaa.com .]
The Geography of the Louisiana Purchase, a topical issue of the Journal of Geography featuring articles by Albert Perry Brigham, Nelson H. Darton, Spencer Trotter, Ellen Churchill Semple and others is prepared in celebration of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the National Education Association's 1904 annual meeting in St. Louis.
[Journal of Geography 3 (June 1904): entire issue.]
The first Ph.D. degree in geography education awarded in the United States is granted to David Gibbs at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. Gibbs’ dissertation, prepared under the supervision of psychologist and Clark University president G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924), appears as The Pedagogy of Geography. It reviews previous approaches to geography education, describes contemporary classroom practices (based upon interviews with both teachers and students), and concludes that the pre-collegiate teaching of geography should-incorporate a Heimatkunde (home geography) orientation, stress elements of human geography prior to those of physical geography, feature maps as learning devices, and emphasize techniques of observation and sense perception. Gibbs, who had been a school-district superintendent in the Philippines, prepares a series of school textbooks for Philippine schools based upon Heimatkunde.
[David Gibbs. The Pedagogy of Geography. Pedagogical Seminary 16 (1906): 39-95; William A. Koelsch. G. Stanley Hall, Child Study and the Teaching of Geography. Journal of Geography 101 (January-February 2002): 3-9.]
Gannett Peak, of the Wind River Range and highest elevation in the state of Wyoming (4,207 m./13,804 ft.), is named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names for Henry Gannett (1846-1914), first director of geography programs at the U.S. Bureau of the Census and the U.S. Geological Survey, co-founder and president of the National Geographic Society, and founding member of the Association of American Geographers.
University of Nebraska in Lincoln, Nebraska establishes a Department of Geography in 1906 and its graduate program in geography the same year. The geography program is currently housed in the Department of Anthropology and Geography. [www.unl.edu]
University of Cincinnati in Cincinnati, Ohio establishes a geography program in its newly created Department of Geology and Geography, chaired by Nevin M. Fenneman (1865-1945). Fenneman also presents the university's first course in geography, Geography for Teachers, in 1907. In 1959, the geography program detaches from the Department of Geology and Geography to form the Department of Geography and Regional Planning, chaired by Peter H. Nash. In 1963, the department is renamed Department of Geography and is initially chaired by Robert B. McNee. Programmatically the department emphasizes an urban-economic-historical triad of academic courses and research. During the mid-1980s the department returns to an emphasis on physical geography and adds geographic information systems (GIS) to the curriculum in 1990. The university awards its first B.A. (1923), M.A. (1931), and Ph.D. (1964) degrees in geography to William Wachs. Currently the department’s academic programs lead to the B.A., M.A., joint M.A.-M.C.P., and Ph.D.
[ www.uc.edu; Bruce Ryan. Seventy-Five Years of Geography at the University of Cincinnati. Cincinnati: Department of Geography, University of Cincinnati, 1983.]
Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio establishes a Department of Geography in 1907 and its graduate program in geography the same year. [www.ohio-state.edu]
A Geographic Interpretation of New York City, by Frederick V. Emerson, is the first doctoral dissertation completed in the United States addressing the topic of urban settlement. It is also the first doctoral dissertation awarded in geography by the University of Chicago.
[Frederick V. Emerson. A Geographic Interpretation of New York City. Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 40 (1908): 587-612, 40 (1908): 726-738, and 41 (1909): 3-21.]
Robert Edwin Peary (1856-1920), U.S. Navy, leads the Arctic expedition that is generally credited with being first to reach the North Pole. The expedition’s final assault party travels from a camp at 87° 47’ north (1 April 1909); arrives at/near the pole (6 April); and returns to Cape Columbia, Ellesmere Island (23 April). The party consists of Robert E. Peary, Matthew A. Henson (1866-1955), four Inuits—Ootah, Egingwah, Seegloo, Ooqueah, and 40 sled dogs.
The egoism and nationalism, among numerous other ‘isms’ common among geographic expeditions seeking to ‘discover’ or ‘conquer’ Earth’s extremities receive full expression in Peary’s address upon returning to Cape Columbia, “My life work is accomplished. The thing which was intended from the beginning that I should do, the thing which I believed could be done, and that I could do, I have done. I have got the North Pole out of my system after twenty-three years of effort, hard work, disappointments, hardships, privations, more or less suffering, and some risks. I have won the last great geographical prize, the North Pole, for the credit of the United States. This work is the finish, the cap and climax of nearly for hundred years of effort, loss of life, and expenditure of fortunes by the civilized nations of the world, and it has been accomplished in a way that is thoroughly American. I am content” (Peary).
Peary’s two decades of Arctic exploration prior to his ‘conquest of the pole’ include extensive exploration of Greenland; wintering in the Arctic with his wife Josephine; and three other attempts to reach the pole. The numerous honors Peary receives for his geographic exploration of the Arctic include recognition from the U.S. Congress, Gold Medal and Hubbard Medal of the National Geographic Society, Cullum Geographical Medal and Charles P. Daly Medal of the American Geographical Society, Elisha Kent Kane Medal of the Philadelphia Geographical Society, Helen Culver Medal of the Chicago Geographical Society, Livingstone Medal of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society (UK), King Humbert Medal of the Royal Italian Geographical Society, Nachtigall Medal of the Imperial German Geographical Society, Légion d’Honneur from France, president of the Eighth International Geographical Congress in Washington, D.C., and honors at the Tenth International Geographical Congress in Rome. Peary also serves as president of the American Geographical Society (1903-06).
Matthew Henson, who spends two decades working with Peary and travels with him to the pole, receives the Helen Culver Medal of the Geographic Society of Chicago as “the first Negro in this country to be honored for scientific achievement in the geographical field,” recognition from the U.S. Congress in 1944, and Hubbard Medal of the National Geographic Society (posthumously).
Efforts to ‘prove’ or ‘disprove’ whether the Peary Expedition “won the last great geographical prize, the North Pole” continue. Peary and Henson are buried near each other in Arlington National Cemetery in Washington, D.C.
[Robert E. Peary. The North Pole. New York: Frederick A Stokes, 1910; Matthew A. Henson. A Negro Explorer at the North Pole. New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1912; Josephine Diebitsch Peary. My Arctic Journal. New York: Contemporary Publishing Co., 1893; William H. Hobbs. Memoir of Robert Edwin Peary. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 11: 93-108; Wally Herbert. The Noose of Laurels: Robert E. Peary in the Race for the North Pole. New York: Doubleday, 1989; Robert M. Bryce. Cook and Peary: the Polar Controversy, Resolved. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1997; www.northpole1909.com; academic.bowdoin.edu/arcticmuseum.]
Report of the [U.S.] National Conservation Commission, America's first comprehensive inventory and assessment of natural resources, is prepared for the U.S. National Conservation Commission, a presidential commission appointed by Theodore Roosevelt. Prepared under the direction of Henry Gannett (1846-1914), the report marks an important step in the federal government's involvement in America's conservation movement and in terms of the scientific analysis of the balance among availability, demand, and use of natural resources in the United States. Only a few hundred copies of the report are produced when a political struggle between Congress and the Presidency results in no funds being allocated for its printing (Marcy). Conservation of Natural Resources in the United States, by Charles Van Hise (1857-1918) then president of the University of Wisconsin, is based on the suppressed report and does much to promote the study of conservation in American universities during the next two decades.
[Henry Gannett. ed. Report of the [U.S.] National Conservation Commission, with Accompanying Papers. 3 vols. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1909; Carl Marcy. Presidential Commissions. New York: King's Crown Press, 1945; Charles R. Van Hise. Conservation of Natural Resources in the United States. New York: Macmillan, 1910, and revised by Loomis Havemeyer, Gar A. Roush, and Frederic H. Newell as Conservation of Our Natural Resources. New York: Macmillan, 1930.]
East Carolina University in Greenville, North Carolina, originally the East Carolina Teachers’ Training School, offers geography courses from the day it opens for classes in 1909. Professor Herbert E. Austin, who received his graduate training in geography at Clark University, insures that all prospective teachers receive training in geography, and is honored at his death in 1929 when the administration building is renamed the Austin Building. The Department of Geography is created in 1921, which currently offers the B.A. degree in geography, B.S. in applied geography, M.A. in geography, and M.A. in geography with planning concentration.
[www.ecu.edu; Ronald L. Mitchelson. “Map This!” A History of the Geography Department at East Carolina University. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 268-287.]
University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona offers a preparatory course in physical geography annually from the 1910-11 academic year, a course that was first offered in 1892. Melvin E. Hecht, the university’s first professor trained as a geographer, joins the faculty on a continuing basis in 1956. The university awards its first B.S. degree in Business Administration with a major in area development in 1958. Geography is first offered as a major to students in the College of Liberal Arts in 1959 and the first B.A. degrees in geography are awarded in 1961. The geography program achieves departmental status when the Department of Geography and Area Development is created in the College of Business and Public Administration in 1961, with Dan Stanislawski becoming the first head of department in 1963. The Department of Geography and Area Development merges with the Committee on Urban Planning in 1973 to create a Department of Geography, Area Development, and Urban Planning. When the planning faculty is dissolved in 1979, the department name becomes the Department of Geography and Regional Development. In 1980, the department moves from the Business and Public Administration Building to the fourth floor of Harvill Building. A final administrative adjustment transfers the department from the College of Business and Public Administration to the Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences in the College of Arts and Sciences in 1983. The Department of Geography and Regional Development currently awards the B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. in geography and the B.S. in regional development.
The emergence of American research universities and their doctoral training programs late in the nineteenth century produces a dozen Ph.D. degrees in geography by the close of the next century’s first decade. Half are awarded by the University of Pennsylvania; the other half by Johns Hopkins University, Yale University, University of Chicago, and Cornell University combined. By the close of World War II, more than 300 doctorates in geography are awarded.
[Derwent Whittlesey. Dissertations in Geography Accepted by Universities in the United States for the Degree of Ph.D. as of May, 1935. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 25 (December 1935): 211-237; Leslie Hewes. Dissertations in Geography Accepted by Universities in the United States and Canada for the Degree of Ph.D., June, 1935, to June 1946, and Those Currently in Progress. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 36 (December 1946): 215-247.]
Influences of Geographic Environment, on the Basis of Ratzel’s System of Anthropo-geography, a landmark book by Ellen Churchill Semple (1863-1932), is published in 1911. Semple’s work, inspired by the first volume of Fredrich Ratzel’s Anthropo-Geographie: Grundzüge der Anwendung der Erdkunde Verbreitung des Menschen (1882), documents the “influences of geographic environment” on four aspects of humans and their activities - (1) “direct physical effects” on human physiology; “psychical effects” on human activities such as religion, laws, and language; “the economic and social development of a people by the abundance, paucity, or general character of the natural resources, by the local ease or difficulty of securing the necessaries of life, and by the possibility of industry and commerce afforded by the environment;” and “the movements and ultimate distribution of mankind” (Semple 33-50). It becomes the most influential volume in human geography published by an American during the first part of the twentieth century.
[Ellen Churchill Semple. Influences of Geographic Environment, On the Basis of Ratzel’s System of Anthropo-Geography. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1911, New York: Russell & Russell, 1968; Contemporary reviews include, Anon. Nature 88 (1911): 101, George G. Chisholm. Miss Semple on the Influence of Geographical Environment. Geographical Journal 39 (1912): 31-37, Ray H. Whitbeck. Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 43 (1911): 937-939, and Anon. Journal of Geography 10 (1911): 33; John K. Wright. Miss Semple’s Influences of Geographic Environment: Notes Toward a Bibliobiography. In Human Nature in Geography. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966. Pp. 188-204; Carl Sauer. Ellen Churchill Semple. In Edwin R. A. Seligman and Alvin Johnson. eds. Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. New York: Macmillan, 1934. Vol. 13, pp. 661-662; Charles C. Colby. Ellen Churchill Semple. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 23 (December 1933): 229-240; Judith Conoyer Bronson. Ellen Semple: Contributions to a History of American Geography. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. St. Louis: Department of History, Saint Louis University, 1973; Kathleen E. Braden. Regions, Semple, and Structuration. Geographical Review 86 (July 1996): 377-384.]
Annals of the Association of American Geographers, a scholarly journal of the Association of American Geographers, begins publication. Its publication continues to the present. (see Association of American Geographers entry at 1904)
[Electronic version available from JSTOR, the scholarly journal Internet archival service, www.jstor.org]
The Transcontinental Excursion of 1912 is sponsored by the American Geographical Society in celebration of its sixtieth anniversary and the occupancy of a new building at 156th and Broadway in New York City. The grand two-month field expedition, primarily by train, is composed of a party of 43 European and 90 American geographers that is lead by William Morris Davis (1850-1934). The expedition's 13,000-mile route extends from New York City across the Midwest and Northern Plains to the Pacific Northwest, south to San Francisco, and returns to the Eastern Seaboard and New York City via Colorado, the Southeast, and Washington, D.C.
[William M. Davis. Guidebook for the Transcontinental Excursion of 1912. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1912; Memorial Volume of the Transcontinental Excursion of 1912 of the American Geographical Society of New York. Special Publication No. 1. New York: American Geographical Society, 1915; Geography in European and American Universities: a Symposium Held at Cabell Hall, University of Virginia, October 12, 1912. Reprinted from Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of the University of Virginia 1 (1915): 99-134; with Preface by Gary S. Dunbar. Charlottesville, VA: Department of Geography, University of Virginia, 1965.]
University of Southern Mississippi in Hattiesburg, Mississippi establishes a Department of Geography in 1912 and its graduate program in geography in 1966. [www.usm.edu]
University of California Publications in Geography begins publication. Twenty-eight volumes are issued by the time it ceases publication in 1988.
The Conference on the Delineation of Physiographic Provinces in the United States is conducted and a committee on the same topic is formed by the Association of American Geographers to delineate and describe a standard set of physiographic (also termed landform, geomorphic, or physical) regions of the United States. Chaired by Nevin M. Fenneman (1865-1945), the committee builds upon previous work (Powell, Gannett, Bowman, Joerg, and Fenneman 1914) and deliberately avoids delineating holistic or multi-factor natural regions (Matthes and Herbertson). To facilitate relating the physiographic regions to statistics on human habitation, the new regions utilize the same small-area political boundaries that the U.S. Bureau of the Census uses for its statistics. Fenneman spends the 1915-16 academic year working in Washington with the U.S. Geological Survey's Physiographic Committee and the completed set of physiographic regions appears in the Annals of the Association of American Geographers (Fenneman 1916). Fenneman spends another decade working with the Geological Survey's Physiographic Committee to produce a hierarchy of "major divisions, provinces, and sections" and to refine the original map and the written descriptions of each region (Fenneman 1928). He subsequently provides a far more detailed (1,200-pages) regional physiographic description of the United States (Fenneman 1931 & 1938).
Fenneman's final 1928 delineation of physical regions quickly becomes an accepted standard and is used in numerous subsequent publications, including regional physiographic studies (Atwood and Thornbury) and The National Atlas of the United States of America (Gerlach). It continues in use to the present.
[John W. Powell. Physiographic Regions of the United States. Washington: National Geographic Society, 1894; Henry Gannett. A Discussion of Area and Population. Census Bulletin No. 149. Washington: Census Office, 1902; Isaiah Bowman. Forest Physiography: Physiography of the United States and Principles of Soils in Relation to Forestry. New York: John Wiley, 1911; W. L. G. Joerg. The Subdivision of North America into Natural Regions: a Preliminary Inquiry. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 4 (1914): 55-83; Nevin M. Fenneman. Physiographic Boundaries within the United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 4 (1914): 84-134; Nevin M. Fenneman. Physiographic Divisions of the United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 6 (1916): 19-98; F. E. Matthes. The Conference on the Delineation of Physiographic Provinces in the United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 5 (1915): 127-129; A. J. Herbertson. The Major Natural Regions: an Essay in Systematic Geography. Geographical Journal 25 (1905): 300-312; Nevin M. Fenneman. Physiographic Divisions of the United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 18 (1928): 261-353, which includes Nevin M. Fenneman with the Physiographic Committee of the Geological Survey. Physical Divisions of the United States [map]. 1:7,000,000, 45 x 72 cm., which is also issued separately as Physical Divisions of the United States [map] with descriptive pamphlet. Washington: U.S. Geological Survey, 1928; Nevin M. Fenneman. Physiography of Western United States. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1931; Nevin M. Fenneman. Physiography of Eastern United States. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1938; Wallace W. Atwood. The Physiographic Provinces of North America. Boston: Ginn and Co., 1940; William D. Thornbury. Regional Geomorphology of the United States. New York: John Wiley, 1965; Arch C. Gerlach. ed. The National Atlas of the United States of America. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970.]
Kent State University in Kent, Ohio establishes a Department of Geography in 1914 and its graduate program in geography in 1935. [www.kent.edu]
San Diego State University in San Diego, California establishes a Department of Geography in 1914 and its graduate program in geography in 1956. [www.sdsu.edu]
University of Tennessee in Knoxville, Tennessee establishes a Department of Geography in 1914 and its graduate program in geography in 1928.
[www.utk.edu; Sidney R. Jumper. Geography at the University of Tennessee: 1794-2003. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 226-244.]
Gilman Hall, named for Daniel Coit Gilman, first president of Johns Hopkins University, is dedicated as the major academic building on that university's campus. Gilman was professor of physical and political geography in the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University (1863-1872), president of the University of California at Berkeley (1872-1875), president of Johns Hopkins University (1876-1901) and president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (1902-04).
[John K. Wright. Daniel Coit Gilman, Geographer and Historian. Geographical Review 51 (1961): 381-399; Abraham Flexner. Daniel Coit Gilman: Creator of the American Type of University. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co.1946.
National Council for Geographic Education, originally the National Council of Geography Teachers, is established under the guidance of George J. Miller (1880-1973).
[James W. Vining. The National Council for Geographic Education: the First Seventy-five Years and Beyond. Indiana, PA: National Council for Geographic Education, 1990.]
Memorial Volume on the Transcontinental Excursion of 1912 is the first volume of the American Geographical Society’s distinguished Special Publications to be issued. The thirty-nine volumes in the Special Publication series include a wide range of topics in geography-exploration, human settlement, geomorphology, natural resources, historical and regional geographies, literature, and new techniques for visualizing Earth and geographic information. The last volume in the series is issued in 1971.
[Memorial Volume of the Transcontinental Excursion of 1912 of the American Geographical Society of New York. Special Publication No. 1. New York: American Geographical Society, 1915; Isaiah Bowman. The Andes of Southern Peru: Geographical Reconnaissance Along the Seventy-Third Meridian. Special Publication No. 2. New York: Henry Holt for the American Geographical Society, 1916; Leon Dominian. Frontiers of Language and Nationality in Europe. Special Publication No. 3. New York: John Holt for the American Geographical Society, 1917; Willis T. Lee. The Face of the Earth as Seen from the Air: a Study in the Application of Airplane Photography to Geography. Special Publication No. 4. New York: American Geographical Society, 1922; Pioneer Settlement: Comparative Studies. Special Publication No. 14. New York: American Geographical Society, 1932; J. Harlan Bretz. Grand Coulee. Special Publication No. 15. New York: American Geographical Society, 1932; James T. Adams. ed. New England’s Prospect: 1933. Special Publication No. 16. New York: American Geographical Society, 1933; Environment and Conflict in Europe: Eighteen Basic Maps [maps and text in portfolio format]. Special Publication No. 24. New York: American Geographical Society, 1939; Ralph H. Brown. Mirror for Americans: Likeness of the Eastern Seaboard 1810. Special Publication No. 27. New York: American Geographical Society, 1943; John Aldrich Christie. [Henry David] Thoreau as World Traveler. New York: Columbia University Press with American Geographical Society, 1965; Kenneth J. Bertrand. Americans in Antarctica, 1775-1948. Special Publication No. 39. New York: American Geographical Society, 1971.]
Geographical Review, a scholarly journal of the American Geographical Society, begins publication, succeeding the Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. Its publication continues to the present. (see American Geographical Society entry at 1851)
[Wilma B. Fairchild. The Geographical Review and the American Geographical Society. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 69 (March 1979): 33-38. Electronic version available from JSTOR, the scholarly journal Internet archival service, www.jstor.org]
The National Research Council (NRC) is created in Washington, D.C. in 1916 as a sister organization of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to act as the operating agency of the Academy. Through a system of committees, the National Research Council conducts the active investigations called for in the Academy's charter-to further knowledge and advise the federal government. The NRC's original Division of Geology and Geography, which includes eleven members of the Association of American Geographers among its twenty-one members, contributes significantly to research on the availability of minerals and resource during World War I. In 1933, Isaiah Bowman becomes the first geographer to chair the National Research Council.
During the ensuing years, the National Research Council supports numerous publications that explore geography as a research discipline-American Geography: Inventory and Prospect (1954), The Science of Geography (1965), Geography: Report of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey (1969), Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society (1997). Its numerous committees address a variety of geography-related research topics and their own publications-Social and Economic Aspects of Natural Resources (1963), Geographical Perspectives and Urban Problems (1973), Population Redistribution in the United States in the 1970s (1977), Population Redistribution and Public Policy (1980). Geography is currently represented in the research agendas of at least three of the National Research Council's five major program areas-Division on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Division on Earth and Life Sciences, and Transportation Research Board. www.nas.edu. (see National Academy of Sciences entry at 1863, American Geography: Inventory and Prospect entry at 1954, and The Science of Geography entry at 1965)
[Ronald C. Tobey. The American Ideology of National Science, 1919-1930. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1971; Robert Kargon and Elizabeth Hodes. Karl Compton, Isaiah Bowman, and the Politics of Science in the Great Depression. Isis 76 (1985): 301-318.]
Ralph S. Tarr (1864-1912) is honored by the placing of a memorial granite boulder on the campus of Cornell University. He was a professor of geology and physical geography at Cornell (1892-1912) and author of several textbooks that respond to the demand for new classroom materials for teaching physical geography following the 1893 report of the National Education Association's Committee of Ten.
[Ralph S. Tarr. Elementary Physical Geography. New York: Macmillan, 1895; Ralph S. Tarr. New Physical Geography. New York: Macmillan, 1904; Ralph S. Tarr. College Physiography. New York: Macmillan, 1914.]
University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Wisconsin establishes a Department of Geography in 1916 and its graduate program in geography in 1963. The American Geographical Society Collection, composed of 450,000 maps, 200,000 volumes, 200,000 LANDSAT images, 160,000 photographs, 7,600 atlases, 70 globes, related geographic materials, and the archives of the Association of American Geographers is housed in the university’s Golda Meir Library. [www.uwm.edu]
Colonel Edward M. House organizes a group of experts at the New York Public Library in April 1917 to compile information for the American delegation in anticipation of peace negotiations that will bring World War I to an end. The group, which comes to be known as the Inquiry, moves to the American Geographical Society building at 156th and Broadway in November 1917. Isaiah Bowman (1878-1950, then director of the American Geographical Society) assumes leadership of the group in August 1918. From November 1917 to December 1918, the Inquiry prepares materials for the Peace Conference with a staff of about 150 persons, including the geographers Nevin M. Fenneman, Mark Jefferson, Armin K. Lobeck, Lawrence Martin, and Ellen Churchill Semple, geomorphologists Bailey Willis and Douglas W. Johnson, historians, economists, and statisticians among others.
The Inquiry engages in "a map-making program hitherto without precedent in this country... [with maps] made to visualize not only all manner of territorial boundaries but distribution of peoples, populations and their local densities, religions, economic activities, distribution of material resources, trade routes, both historic and potential strategic points, etc. [plus] a series of base maps and block diagrams [i.e., landform maps]" (Anon 4-5). The War Department issues a set of about 30 of these base maps (at scales ranging from 1:250,000 to 1:26,500,000) and 5 landform maps for distribution to colleges and universities throughout the United States with Students Army Training Corps programs.
Materials prepared by the Inquiry travel to France in December 1918 with the American Commission to Negotiate Peace. The American Commission includes a Geography Section and geographers Isaiah Bowman (Chief Territorial Specialist of the American delegation Executive Officer of the Section of Economic, Political, and Territorial Intelligence), Mark Jefferson (Geographer and Cartographer of the American Commission), Lawrence Martin, and Armin K. Lobeck, each of whom works in a variety of roles. The work continues through December 1919. (see Office of the Geographer, U.S. Department of State entry at 1920)
It is estimated that half of the 100 or so members of the Association of American Geographers are engaged in some form of active war service during World War I, including service within the military, especially Military Intelligence Division of the General Staff, as well as with the Inquiry, War Trade Board, Shipping Board, Division of Geology and Geography of the newly created National Research Council, and numerous Student Army Training Corps' programs in colleges and universities.
[Anon. The American Geographical Society's Contribution to the Peace Conference. Geographical Review 7 (January 1919): 1-10; Charles H. Haskins and Robert H. Lord. Some Problems of the Peace Conference. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1920; Edward M. House and Charles Seymour. eds. What Really Happened at Paris: the Story of the Peace Conference, 1918-1919, by American Delegates. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1921; James T. Shotwell. At the Paris Peace Conference. New York: Macmillan, 1937; Lawrence E. Gelfand. The Inquiry: American Preparations for Peace, 1917-1919. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1963; Arthur Walworth. America's Moment: 1918, American Diplomacy at the End of World War I. New York: Norton, 1976; Arthur Walworth. Wilson and his Peacemakers: American Diplomacy at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. New York: Norton, 1986; Geoffrey J. Martin. The Inquiry and Paris Peace Conference. In A Life and Thought of Isaiah Bowman. Hamden CT: Arcon Books, 1980, Pp. 81-98; Geoffrey J. Martin. Map Making: the Inquiry and Paris Peace Conference. In Mark Jefferson: Geographer. Ypsilanti, MI: Eastern Michigan University Press, Pp. 167-198; James B. Rhoads. Preliminary Inventory of the Cartographic Records of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace (Record Group 256). U.S. National Archives Preliminary Inventory No. 68. Washington, DC: U.S. National Archives and Records Service, 1954; Nevin M. Fenneman. The Circumference of Geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 9 (1919): 3-11; Anon. War Services of Members of the Association of American Geographers. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 9 (1919): 53-70; Paul J. Goode. What the War Should Do for Our Methods in Geography. Journal of Geography 18 (1919): 179-184; Charles Redway Dryer. Genetic Geography: the Development of the Geographic Sense and Concept. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 10 (1920): 3-16.]
American Geophysical Union is established in 1919 to promote the scientific study of Earth and to promote cooperation among scientific organizations involved in geophysics and related disciplines. It is created by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, and remains affiliated with the National Research Council until it is incorporated as an independent organization in 1972. Membership grows to include over 38,000 members residing in over 100 countries. Among its numerous publications are Eos and Journal of Geophysical Research.
Human geography emerges with its own independent identity in geography education, with textbooks appearing for elementary and secondary schools and for colleges. Two multi-volume series of graded school textbooks are prepared by Harlan H. Barrows (1877-1960) and Edith P. Parker (1886-1961), and by James Fairgrieve (1870-1953) and Ernest Young. The 'Journeys in Distant Lands' series prepared by Barrows and Parker attempts "to guide pupils in gaining useful understandings concerning relationships of man to his natural environment and in developing various abilities, habits, and attitudes which are inherent in the practice of sound geographical thinking." Texts appearing for college instruction include books by Jean Bruhnes, Ellsworth Huntington and Sumner W. Cushing, Joseph Russell Smith, and Paul Vidal de la Blache.
[Harlan H. Barrows and Edith P. Parker. Geography: Journeys in Distant Lands (1924), Geography: Europe and Asia (1927), Geography: Southern Lands (1929), Geography: Journeys in Distant Lands and the United States and Canada (1930), all published in New York by Silver, Burdett and Co.; James Fairgrieve and Ernest Young. Human Geography by Grades. 6 vols. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1923-27; Jean Bruhnes. Human Geography: An Attempt at a Positive Classification; Principles and Examples, translated from the French by I. C. LeCompte and edited by Isaiah Bowman and Richard E. Dodge. Chicago: Rand, McNally and Co., 1920; Ellsworth Huntington and Sumner W. Cushing. Principles of Human Geography. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1921; Joseph Russell Smith. Human Geography. 2 vols. plus teacher's manual. Chicago: John C. Winston Co., 1921; Paul Vidal de la Blache. Principles of Human Geography, translated from the French by Millicent Todd Bingham and edited by Emmanuel de Martonne. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1926.]
Office of the Geographer is established in the U.S. Department of State. The office is created to maintain the geographic expertise in international boundary delineation and regional analysis that had been developed within the American Commission to Negotiate Peace, which represented the United States at the Paris Peace Conference concluding World War I. It is also to maintain the geographic information-initially the hundreds of original maps prepared by the Commission-required to sustain the office’s geographic analysis functions.
Colonel Lawrence Martin (1880-1955), a member of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace, becomes the first Geographer. His first task is delimiting the southern and western boundaries of Armenia at the request of the Allied Forces. Martin heads the Office of the Geographer until 1923. Subsequent heads include S. Whittemore Boggs (1924-54), G. Etzel Pearcy (1957-69), Robert D. Hodgson (1971-79), Lewis M. Alexander (1979-84), and George J. Demko (1984-89).
The Office of the Geographer addresses a broad range of geographic questions over the years, most particularly ones relating to international boundary issues. In 1940, the U.S. Congress raises the question of whether Greenland is part of the Western Hemisphere for purposes of the Monroe Doctrine. S. Whittemore Boggs responds by defining the Western Hemisphere as consisting of North America (including Central America, the West Indies, and Greenland), South America, all islands appertaining to the two continents, and to include the westernmost islands of Alaska’s Aleutian Peninsula, he suggests utilizing the International Date Line as the hemisphere’s western limit. Among many projects undertaken during World War II, the Office of the Geographer takes the lead in producing the Atlas of World Maps for the Study of Geography in the Army Specialized Training Program.
The Office of the Geographer addresses questions concerning international territorial waters for many decades. During the 1970s its attention focuses particularly on the emerging United Nations’ Convention on the Law of the Sea, eventually adopted by the United Nations in 1982. At this time, the Department of State establishes an ad hoc Committee on Delimitation of the United States Coastline, also known as the Interagency Baseline Committee, to review lines that are drawn to enclose bays and to depict the outer limits of the U.S. territorial sea and contiguous zone. Among other contributions, the committee delimits the extent of the exclusive economic zone claimed by the United States in 1983.
[Letters from A. A. Adee to Secretary of the Interior (20 September 1920) and from J. B. Payne to Secretary of State (24 September 1920) in U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, Department of State (Record Group 59), Records of the Geographer; Lewis M. Alexander. Samuel Whittemore Boggs: an Appreciation. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 48 (September 1958): 237-243; S. Whittmore Boggs. Problems of Water-Boundary Definition. Geographical Review 27 (1937): 445-456; S. Whittemore Boggs. International Boundaries: a Study of Boundary Functions and Problems. New York: Columbia University Press, 1940; U.S. Department of State Office of the Geographer, Office of Strategic Services, and American Geographical Society. Atlas of World Maps for the Study of Geography in the Army Specialized Training Program. With 48 maps, 1:75,000,000 to 1:150,000,000, 27 x 55 cm. U.S. Army Service Forces Manual M-101. Washington: Army Service Forces, Army Specialized Training Division, 1943; S. Whittmore Boggs. This Hemisphere. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1945; S. Whittemore Boggs and Dorothy C. Lewis. Classification and Cataloging of Maps and Atlases. New York: Special Library Association, 1945; G. Etzel Pearcy. Measurement of the U.S. Territorial Sea. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1959; Lewis M. Alexander. Offshore Geography of Northwestern Europe: the Political and Economic Problems of Delimitation and Control. Monograph Series No. 3. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co. for the Association of American Geographers, 1963; Robert D. Hodgson. Islands: Normal and Special Circumstances. Washington: Bureau of Intelligence and Research, U.S. Department of State, 1973; Robert D. Hodgson and Lewis M. Alexander. Towards an Objective Analysis of Special Circumstances: Bays, Rivers, Coastal and Oceanic Archipelagos and Atolls. Kingston, RI: Law of the Seas Institute, 1972; Jonathan I. Charney and Lewis M. Alexander. International Maritime Boundaries. 3 vols. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Nijhoff, 1993-98; Michael W. Reed, Shore and Sea Boundaries, with Special Reference to the Interpretation and Use of Coast and Geodetic Survey Data. 3 vols. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000.]
University of Hawai`i offers its first geography courses in 1920, which are taught by the geologist Harold S. Palmer in the Department of Geology and Geography. The university establishes an independent Department of Geography in 1931, chaired by John Wesley Coulter (1893-1967) who had joined the faculty in 1928. During World War II, staff of the University of Hawai`i largely turns to contributing to the war effort. The geography and geology departments merge and Harold S. Palmer teaches all of the courses offered in both subjects. A Department of Geography is reestablished in 1947 with Curtis Manchester as chair, and the M.A. degree is reestablished in 1948.
Statehood for Hawai`i in 1959 results in dramatic improvements to the University of Hawai`i’s programs and facilities, and in 1964, Roland Fuchs begins what will become two decades of leadership as chair of the department. Close ties are established with the university’s well-known East-West Center, and the department’s rapidly expanding graduate program awards its first Ph.D. degrees to Anthony Hughes and Prem Prasad in 1971. Under the direction of Warwick Armstrong, the Atlas of Hawai`i appears in 1973 and becomes a best seller; subsequent editions appear in 1983 and 1998. From 1978 to 1987 the university’s Hawai`ian Studies Program is housed in the Department of Geography. In 1989 the Hawai`i Geographic Alliance, directed by Bryce Decker and Thomas Ohta, is founded with the support of National Geographic Society to promote geography education.
Department faculty direct and host two significant meetings during the 1990s—XVII Pacific Science Congress, directed by Nancy Lewis in 1991, with the theme ‘Towards a Pacific Century: the Challenge of Change;’ and the annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers at the Hilton Hawaiian Village, Waikiki in 1999, with the special publication Hawai`i: New Geographies, edited by Deborah W. Woodcock and articles by many faculty members.
[www.uhm.hawaii.edu; Brian Murton. ed. Fifty Years of Geography at Manoa: a Sketch. Manoa, HI: Department of Geography, University of Hawai`i, n.d; Warwick Armstrong. ed. Atlas of Hawai`i. Honolulu: University Press of Hawai`i, 1973; Deborah W. Woodcock. ed. Hawai`i: New Geographies. Honolulu: Dept. of Geography, University of Hawai`i-Manoa, 1999.]
Physiographic Diagram of the United States, by Armin K. Lobeck (1886-1958), is the first national-scale scientific visualization of the landforms of the United States. The technique of graphically representing landforms with hand-drawn perspective views used by Lobeck is derived from the practice of representing individual landforms with block diagrams. It is further developed and systematized by Erwin J. Raisz (1893-1968) and others. Computer-generated landform maps of the United States are issued in 1991 by the Geological Survey and in 1992 by Raven Maps and Images.
[Armin K. Lobeck. Physiographic Diagram of the United States [map]. 1:3,000,000. Chicago: A. J. Nystrom, 1921; Armin K. Lobeck. Block Diagrams and Other Graphic Methods Used in Geology and Geography. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1924; Guy-Harold Smith. Armin Kohl Lobeck, Geomorphologist and Landscape Artist. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 49 (March 1959): 83-87; Erwin J. Raisz. Landforms of the United States [map]. 1:4,500,000, 64 x 101 cm. In Physiographic Provinces of North America, by Wallace W. Atwood. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1940; Erwin J. Raisz. The Physiographic Method of Representing Scenery on Maps. Geographical Review 21 (April 1931): 297-304; Gail P. Thelin and Richard J. Pike. Landforms of the Conterminous United States--A Digital Shaded-Relief Portrayal [map]. 1:3,500,000, 89 x 138 cm. Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-2206. Washington: U.S. Geological Survey, 1991; Stuart Allan. The United States [map]. Hypsometric tints, 1:3,500,000, 94 x 147 cm. Medford, Oregon: Raven Maps and Images, 1992; Peirce Lewis. Introducing a Cartographic Masterpiece: a Review of the U.S. Geological Survey's Digital Terrain Map of the United States, by Gail Thelin and Richard Pike. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82 (June 1992): 289-300; Richard J. Pike and Gail P. Thelin. Visualizing the United States in Computer Chiaroscuro. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82 (June 1992): 300-302; Stuart Allan. Design and Production Notes for the Raven Editions of the U.S. 1:3.5 Million Digital Map. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82 (June 1992): 303-304.]
Helen M. Strong (1890-1973) becomes the first woman to be awarded a Ph.D. in geography at the University of Chicago in 1921. Two years later she joins the Bureau of Federal and Domestic Commerce, an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce in Washington, D.C. Strong serves as the chief of the Geography Division, where she promotes the utility of geography to business by providing information to manufacturers, agricultural organizations, and trade groups until 1933. During her long career, she also holds senior positions in several other federal agencies, publishes business and scholarly works, and edits several readers for use in geography and social studies classes.
[Helen M. Strong. The Geography of Cleveland. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1921; Helen M. Strong. Cleveland: a City of Contacts. Economic Geography 1 (July 1925): 198-205; Helen M. Strong. Distribution of Agricultural Exports from the United States. U.S. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce Trade Information Bulletin No. 177. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1924; Helen M. Strong. Relation Between Value and Volume of Agricultural Products. U.S. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce Trade Information Bulletin No. 271. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1924; Helen M. Strong. Entrepot Markets for Tropical and Other Exotic Products. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 15 (December 1925): 180-186; Helen M. Strong. Regionalism: Its Cultural Significance. Economic Geography 12 (October 1936): 392-410; Helen M. Strong. Regions of Manufacturing Intensity in the United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 27 (March 1937): 23-43; Helen M. Strong. ed. America’s Oil; America’s Minerals; Soil, Water, and Man; and Our American Forests. New York: Row, Peterson and Co., 1941; Helen M. Strong. Adventures in Geography. Unpublished dinner speech, April 18, 1958, to the Chicago Group, Society of Woman Geographers. Manuscript in Strong files, Society of Woman Geographers Archives, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress.]
National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) is established in 1921 to “lay the foundations for training democratic citizens… from a carefully developed and adequately supported system of teaching in the elementary and secondary schools” (Dawson). NCSS emerges from efforts by the National Education Association (NEA) during the nineteen-teens to develop a unified curriculum for the study of human activities, i.e., social studies, to compliment established curriculums for the physical and biological sciences.
An advisory board, composed of economists, geographers, historians, political scientists, and sociologists, is created to direct the new organization. Other scholarly domains, including anthropology, psychology, and law, are subsequently linked to social studies as well. Today, NCSS publishes the professional journal Social Education, and serves as an umbrella organization for a network of more than 110 affiliated state, local, and regional councils and associated groups that focus on social studies education in the nation’s elementary and secondary schools.
[Edgar Dawson. National Council for the Social Studies. American Historical Review 27 (April 1922): 491-492; Franklin L. Burdette. ed. Education for Citizen Responsibilities: the Roles of Anthropology, Economics, Geography, History, Philosophy, Political Science, Psychology, and Sociology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1942; Preston E. James. ed. New Viewpoints in Geography. Twenty-ninth Yearbook. Washington: National Council for the Social Studies, 1959; Paul R. Hanna, Rose E. Sabaroff, Gordon F. Davies, and Charles R. Farrar. Geography in the Teaching of Social Studies. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1966; Phillip Bacon. ed. Focus on Geography: Key Concepts and Teaching Strategies. Fortieth Yearbook. Washington: National Council for the Social Studies, 1970; John M. Ball, John E. Steinbrink, and Joseph P. Stoltman. eds. The Social Sciences and Geographic Education: a Reader. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1971; Charlotte Crabtree. Social Studies Education, Elementary Schools, and John J. Patrick and Charles S. White. Social Studies Education, Secondary Schools. In Marvin C. Alkin. editor. Encyclopedia of Educational Research. 4 vols. New York: Macmillan. 1992 (1941). Pp. 1229-1236, 1238-1244; Stanley P. Wronski and Donald H. Bragaw. eds. Social Studies and Social Sciences: a Fifty Year Perspective. Bulletin No. 78. Washington, DC: National Council for the Social Studies, 1986; Salvatore J. Natoli. ed. Strengthening Geography in the Social Studies. Bulletin No. 81. Silver Spring, MD: National Council for the Social Studies, 1988; National Council for the Social Studies. Expectations of Excellence: Curriculum Standards for Social Studies. Silver Spring, MD: N.C.S.S., www.ncss.org]
Council on Foreign Relations is established in 1921. An organizational response to the many disappointments experienced by British and American advisors at the Paris Peace Conference concluding World War I, the Council on Foreign Relations addresses the challenge of expanding the geographic horizon of America’s public opinion leaders, business elites, and elected officials, from one that is centered within the United States (a nationalist-isolationist perspective) to the global scale (an internationalist-interventionist perspective). It hopes to influence actions of influential Americans in this realm through the creation of formal and ongoing collaboration and idea exchanges. A parallel British organization, the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House), was organized a year earlier.
Isaiah Bowman (1878-1950), geographer and director of the American Geographical Society, plays an instrumental role in founding the Council and is intimately involved in the affairs of the organization during its initial two decades. The Council on Foreign Relations begins publishing the influential journal Foreign Affairs in 1922.
[Neil Smith. Bowman’s New World and the Council on Foreign Relations. Geographical Review 76 (October 1986): 438-460; Neil Smith. American Empire: Roosevelt’s Geographer and the Prelude to Globalization. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003; Robert Argenbright. Bowman’s New World: World Power and Political Geography. Unpublished M.A. thesis. Berkeley, CA: Department of Geography, University of California at Berkeley, 1985; Isaiah Bowman. The New World: Problems in Political Geography. 4th edition. New York: World Books, 1928 (1921); Thomas R. Dye. Oligarchic Tendencies in National Policy-Making: the Role of the Private Policy-Planning Organization. The Journal of Politics 40 (May 1978): 309-331; Robert D. Schulzinger. The Wise Men of Foreign Affairs. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984; www.cfr.org]
Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts establishes the Graduate School [Department] of Geography and its graduate program in geography, in 1921. The first American Ph.D. in geography education, awarded to Jefferson R. Potter in 1906, indicates the early leadership provided by university president, G. Stanley Hall, in the teaching of geography.
The new School of Geography’s first decade sees the granting of the university’s first M.A. and Ph.D., both in 1922; creation of the New England Geographical Conference, now the New England/St. Lawrence Valley Division (NESTVAL) of the Association of American Geographers, in 1922; inception of the scholarly journal Economic Geography in 1925 and of the popular journal Home Geography Monthly 1931. A second scholarly journal, Antipode: a Radical Journal of Geography, is established here in 1969. Both Economic Geography and Antipode continue serving as vital voices of geographic scholarship. The George Perkins Marsh Institute, dedicated to research on the fundamental question - What is and ought to be our relationship with nature? - is created at the centennial of Clark University in 1990. As of the Graduate School of Geography’s sixtieth anniversary in 1981, it has awarded nearly 300 Ph.D. degrees.
[www.clarku.edu; Saul B. Cohen. ed. Fifty Years of the Graduate School of Geography. Worcester, MA: Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, 1971; Merle C. Prunty. Clark in the Early 1940s. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 69 (March 1979): 42-45; William A. Koelsch. Wallace Atwood’s “Great Geographical Institute.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 70 (December 1980): 567-582; William A. Koelsch. Geography at Clark: the First Fifty Years, 1921-1971. In John E. Harmon and Timothy J. Rickard. eds. Geography in New England: a Special Publication. New Britain, CT: New England-St. Lawrence Valley Geographical Society, 1988. Pp. 40-48; Janice Monk. The Women Were Always Welcome at Clark. Economic Geography A.A.G. Annual Meeting Special Issue (1998): 14-30; William A. Koelsch. G. Stanley Hall, Child Study, and the Teaching of Geography. Journal of Geography 101 (January-February 2002): 3-9; William A. Koelsch. Clark University 1887-1987: a Narrative History. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press, 1987.]
American Geographical Society initiates work on the Map of Hispanic America at the scale of 1:1,000,000. It conforms closely to International Map of the World (IMW) standards. This monumental 107-sheet map provides complete land coverage of Central America, South America, and the West Indies. It is completed in 1946. (see United States entry at 1904)
[Raye R. Platt. The Map of Hispanic America on the Scale of 1:1,000,000. Geographical Review 36 (January 1946): 1-28.]
New England Geographical Conference is established as the nation’s first regional professional geography society. It becomes the New England-St. Lawrence Valley Geographical Society, today’s New England-St. Lawrence Valley Division of the Association of American Geographers. Proceedings, New England/St. Lawrence Valley Geographical Society, a compilation of papers presented at the division’s annual meeting, begins publication in 1971 and continues to the present.
[William A. Koelsch. Before NESTVAL: the New England Geographical Conference. Proceedings, New England/St. Lawrence Valley Geographical Society 2 (1972): 23-33; Harold Meeks. The New England-St. Lawrence Valley Geographical Society: a Short History. Proceedings, New England/St. Lawrence Valley Geographical Society 5 (1975): 74-78]
Boston University in Boston, Massachusetts establishes a Department of Geography in 1922. [www.bu.edu]
Geography as Human Ecology, the landmark presidential address to the Association of American Geographers by Harlan H. Barrows (1877-1960) of the University of Chicago, is published in the Annals of the Association of American Geographers in 1923. The essay argues that relationships between humans and the physical environment, i.e., human ecology, should serve as the principle object of research in geography, both in terms of the adaptations people make in the ways they utilize land and in terms of the adjustments that are made to the physical environment to accommodate these varying uses. Barrows more particularly calls for a focusing of research on understanding the land utilization process in physically hazardous environments, e.g., in areas subject to flooding, drought, earthquakes, etc.
Research on relations among people residing in small-scale physical environments emerges as community studies within sociology during the same decade. This sociological research tradition comes to adopt the same ‘human ecology’ terminology as well. For sociologists the ‘ecology’ term more closely equates to the term ‘spatial’ as it is employed by geographers today. Within this research tradition, the focus is on the investigation of human relations in local communities. Its largest and best known body of research, broadly referred to as the Chicago school, focuses on social dynamics in urban areas.
[Harlan H. Barrows. Geography as Human Ecology. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 13 (1923): 1-14; Robert E. Park, Edward W. Burgess, and Roderick D. McKenzie. The City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1925; Ernest W. Burgess. ed. The Urban Community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1926; Robert E. Park. Human Communities. Volume 2, The Collected Papers of Robert Ezra Park. New York: Free Press, 1952; Roderick D. McKenzie. Demography, Human Geography, and Human Ecology. In L. L. Bernard. ed. The Fields and Methods of Sociology. New York: Ray Lang and Richard Smith, 1934, and in Amos H. Hawley. ed. Roderick D. McKenzie on Human Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968; J. Nicholas Entriken. Robert Park’s Human Ecology and Human Geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 70 (March 1980): 43-58; William Norton. Human Geography and the Geographical Imagination. Journal of Geography 88 (September-October): 186-192.]
The scholarly journal Economic Geography begins publication. Its publication continues to the present.
[Raymond E. Murphy. Economic Geography and Clark University. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 69 (March 1979): 39-42. Electronic version available from JSTOR, the scholarly journal Internet archival service, www.jstor.org]
Society of Woman Geographers is established in New York City by women who are seeking a medium of intellectual exchange among traveled women engaged in geography and allied fields such as ethnology, archaeology, anthropology, astronomy, biology, natural history, sociology, and folklore.
[Gertrude E. Dole. Vignettes of Some Early Members of the Society of Woman Geographers in New York. New York: New York Group, Society of Woman Geographers, 1978; Edith M. Ker. Honors Winners and Flag Carries 1932-1991. Washington: Society of Woman Geographers, 1992; www.iswg.org]
The John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation is established by Simon and Olga Hirsch Guggenheim to provide fellowships for professionals, usually in their 30s or 40s, who have demonstrated distinguished achievement in the natural sciences, social sciences, humanities, or creative arts. The financial resources of a Guggenheim fellowship are meant to enable an individual to devote a specific period of time to research or other creative endeavor. The first Guggenheim fellowships in geography are awarded to Glenn T. Trewartha (1926 and 1943), Edwin M. Loeb (1928), Owen Lattimore (1930 and 1932), John E. Orchard (1931), and Carl O. Sauer (1931). By 2002, 100 Guggenheim fellowships are awarded in geography.
University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota establishes a Department of Geography in 1925. [www.umn.edu]
Dictionary of American Biography (20 volumes), prepared under the sponsorship of the American Council of Learned Societies, provides the United States with its first authoritative biographical dictionary. Publication continues for 70 years (including the 10 supplementary volumes) and will include biographical sketches of 20,000 persons. Numerous geographers, cartographers, geomorphologists, topographic engineers, and persons in other occupations closely allied with the geographic enterprise in America are recognized. Biographical sketches of geographers whose careers were spent primarily in colleges or universities include Wallace W. Atwood, Albert P. Brigham, Ralph H. Brown, Henry C. Cowles, William M. Davis, Nevin M. Fenneman, Daniel C. Gilman, John P. Goode, Arnold H. Guyot, Ellsworth Huntington, Mark S. W. Jefferson, Douglas W. Johnson, Carl O. Sauer, and Ralph S. Tarr. Persons with careers spent primarily in the federal government include John J. Abert, Oliver E. Baker, Marcus Baker, Alfred H. Brooks, George Davidson, Robert Erskine, Henry Gannett, Thomas Hutchins, Matthew F. Maury, Charles A. Schott, William Tatham, and George M. Wheeler. Persons known for their contributions to geography during the nineteenth century include George Perkins Marsh, Samuel A. Mitchell, Jedidiah Morse, Edward Robinson, Emma Hart Willard, and Joseph E. Worcester. Persons known primarily for preparing maps and atlases as surveyors, cartographers, or publishers include Julius Bien, William G. De Brahm, William Darby, Lewis Evans, Augustine Herman, August Hoen, John Melish, John Pory, and Henry Schenck Tanner among others.
[Allen Johnson et al. eds. Dictionary of American Biography. 30 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons for the American Council of Learned Societies, 1926-1996.]
A Plea for the History of Geography, the landmark essay by John Kirtland Wright (1891-1969) appears in Isis, the journal of the History of Science Society, in 1926. Its eloquent call is taken up sporadically with regard to the rich history of geography in the United States. The Geography in America Timeline contributes to the ongoing enterprise of discovering this record.
[John K. Wright. A Plea for the History of Geography. Isis 8 (1926): 477-491; also in John K. Wright. Human Nature in Geography. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966, pp. 11-23, and in John Agnew, David Livingstone, and Alisdair Rogers. eds. Human Geography: an Essential Anthology. Blackwell Publishers, 1996.]
Geography among the Earth Sciences, by Albrecht Penck (1858-1945), represents geography in the memorial volume celebrating the 200th anniversary of the founding of the American Philosophical Society, America's oldest learned society. He describes geography as a science of the surface of Earth at the global scale that analyzes the physical processes that produce regional landscapes, "Naturlandschaft," and in a subordinate manner, the physical and human processes that result in "Kulturlandschaft."
[Albrecht Penck. Geography among the Earth Sciences. The Record of the Celebration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Founding of the American Philosophical Society. Proceedings, Vol. 66. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1927. Pp 621-644.]
Arizona State University establishes a Department of Geography with Jonas W. Hoover as chair in 1927. Geography was alive at Arizona State University prior to creation of a department-two courses, ‘Geography’ and ‘Geography Methods,’ were offered as early as 1888 by Robert L. Long and the Geographic Society, later to become the eighth chapter of Gamma Theta Upsilon (1932), emerged in 1924. In 1930, the department becomes the Division of Geography and Geology in the Department of Science, and then reverts to the Department of Geography in 1957. ASU’s Laboratory of Climatology is established in 1973, and becomes part of the Department of Geography in 1986. The M.Ed. with a specialty in geography is established in 1939, the M.A. and Ph.D. degree programs in geography in 1962 and 1972 respectively. The first Ph.D. degree is awarded in 1977. A departmental support group, Friends of Geography, is created in 1991, and the department begins its support of the Arizona Geographic Alliance in 1994.
[Malcolm L. Comeaux. One Hundred and One Years of Geography at Arizona State University. Publication Series No. 2. Tempe, AZ: Department of Geography, Arizona State University, 1987.]
University of Colorado in Boulder, Colorado establishes a Department of Geography in 1927 and its graduate program in geography in 1930. [www.colorado.edu]
The United States becomes the seventeenth member nation of the International Geographical Union (IGU), which was established in 1922 to provide a permanent body to organize international meetings of geographers. Ten previous International Geographical Congresses had been convened between the first Congress of Geographical, Cosmographical, and Commercial Sciences in Antwerp in 1871 and the massive disruptions wrought by the First World War in Europe terminated the existing order of cooperation. Since 1928, the International Geographical Union, independently and through its association with the International Council of Scientific Unions (beginning in 1931) and the International Social Science Council (beginning in 1951), has expanded to promote international scientific cooperation among geographers in over 80 countries.
Several geographers from North America are honored by the International Geographical Union—the Laureat d'Honneur is awarded Chauncy D. Harris, University of Chicago (1976), Gilbert White, University of Colorado (1992), Leslie Curry, University of Toronto (2000), and Yi-Fu Tuan, University of Wisconsin (2000). The Planet and Humanity Medal, honoring individuals who have made outstanding contributions to addressing environmental issues is awarded Al Gore, Vice President of the United States (1996).
[ www.igu-net.org; Geoffrey J. Martin. One Hundred and Twenty Five Years of Geographical Congresses and the Formation of the International Geographical Union: or, from Antwerp to The Hague. International Geographical Union Bulletin 46 (1966): 5-26.]
Pan American Institute of Geography and History (PAIGH) - Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia (IPGH) is established at the 6th International Conference of American States in Havana, Cuba in 1928. PAIGH, a constituent organization of the Pan American Union, is created to promote and coordinate studies and cooperation among member states (countries) on topics in geography, history, cartography, and geophysics. Member states include the United States of America, 21 Latin American and Caribbean countries, and 4 observer countries. In 1949, PAIGH transfers to the Organization of American States (OAS) - Organización de Estados Americanos (OEA), successor organization to the Pan American Union. Preston E. James (1899-1986) heads the U.S. delegation to the 1st Consultation (meeting) of PAIGH at the time of transfer.
PAIGH is currently organized in four separate commissions-geography, cartography, history, and geophysics, and it publishes a series of journals-Revista Geográfica del Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia (beginning in 1941), Revista Cartográfica, Revista Historia de América, Revista Geofísica, Boletín de Antropología, Revista de Arqueología, Folklore Americano, and other topical items. The Geography Commission conducts a wide range of projects over the years, including the Regional Geography Committee (chaired by Preston E. James, 1949-52), Committee on Land Classification and Land Use (also chaired by Preston E. James, 1952-65), and the Status of Mapping in the Americas index of maps, now termed the Atlas of the Americas Project.
In 1935, the United States hosts the 2nd General Assembly of PAIGH, which meets in Washington, D.C., and in 1952, hosts the 3rd Consultation of the PAIGH, which also meets in Washington, D.C., in conjunction with the 17th International Geographical Congress and the annual meeting of the U.S. National Council of Geographic Education. Wallace W. Atwood (1872-1949) serves as the first President of PAIGH, from 1932 to 1935, and at least two Americans are honored by PAIGH-Clarence F. Jones (1893-1991) receives the first Pan American Gold Medal Geographic Award in recognition of his work on the Puerto Rico Rural Land Classification Program in 1952 (Jones et al., Jones and Picó), and Preston E. James receives the Pan American Medal in 1959.
The headquarters of PAIGH, established in 1930, is located in Mexico City, Mexico. Its permanent address-Secretary General of PAIGH, Ex-Arzobispado No. 29, Col. Observatorio 11860, Mexico City, Apartado Postal 18879, MEXICO. PAIGH. (www.ipgh.org.mx and sites.maxwell.syr.edu/paigh/geocomm.htm.)
[Pan American Institute of Geography and History. Proceedings of the Second General Assembly. U.S. Department of State Series Conference No. 28. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1937; Wallace W. Atwood. The Protection of Nature in the Americas. PAIGH Publication No. 50. Mexico City: PAIGH, 1940 (Spanish edition, 1941); Clarence F. Jones et al. The Rural Land Classification Program of Puerto Rico. Studies in Geography No. 1. Evanston, IL: Department of Geography Northwestern University, 1952; Clarence F. Jones and Raphael Picó. eds. Symposium on the Geography of Puerto Rico. Río Pedras, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico Press, 1955.]
Gamma Theta Upsilon (GTU) is established as an honor society for college geography students in 1928 and becomes a national organization in 1931. Its primary goals are to further professional interest in geography by affording a common organization for those interested in the field; to strengthen student and professional training through academic experiences in addition to those of the classroom and laboratory; to advance the status of geography as a cultural and practical discipline for study and investigation; and to encourage student research of high quality and promote publication. Among other programs, it publishes the scholarly journal The Geographical Bulletin twice a year and provides funds for the Visiting Geographical Scientist Program, which enables geographers to visit college campuses.
University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin establishes an independent Department of Geography, when the geography program separates from geology in 1928. Coursework in geography had been presented in the university for several decades - the first course, General and Geographic Geology, was presented by Rollin D. Salisbury (1858-1922) during the 1891-92 academic year. The graduate program in geography is also established in 1928. Vernor C. Finch (1883-1959) who had received the university's first Ph.D. in geography (1916), serves as the new department's first chair.
The department, located in Science Hall, incorporates a 60,000 volume geography library, the Arthur H. Robinson Map and Air Photo Library, a large Cartographic Laboratory, and soils and geomorphology laboratories. It offers programs leading to the B.A., B.S., M.S. (geography, cartography and geographic information systems), and Ph.D. (geography) degrees, and a Graduate Certificate in G.I.S.
[www.wisc.edu; Glenn T. Trewartha. Geography at Wisconsin. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 69 (March 1979): 16-21; Glenn T. Trewartha. Geography at the University of Wisconsin. Madison, WI: Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin, 1978.]
Geographical Cross-Word Puzzle Book, by Armin Lobeck, is the first published set of geography crossword puzzles in the United States. Interest in geography crossword puzzles continues for pedagogical purposes and for fun.
[Armin K. Lobeck. Geographical Cross-Word Puzzle Book. New York: The Geographical Press, 1929; for contemporary geography crossword puzzles, query an internet search engine by entering the words "geography crossword"]
Florida State University in Tallahassee, Florida establishes a Department of Geography in 1929, and a graduate program in geography offering the M.A. degree in 1930 and the Ph.D. in 1995.
[www.fsu.edu; Morton D. Winsberg. A Short History of Florida State University’s Department of Geography. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 291-306; Edward A. Fernald. Geography as the Catalyst for an Applied Research/Service Program: the Florida State University Example. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 373-377.]
The examination of regions as explicit and unique geographic entities emerges as a major research focus among American geographers during the 1930s. Questions addressed include the conceptual basis of regions; historical justification of regions as a core concept in geography; methodological questions concerning regionalization criteria and the cartographic delineation of regions; the utility of regional approaches in economic development; and the role of regions in understanding relationships between humans and the local physical environments in which they dwell. Research themes developed during this period remain active into the current century.
[Editor. Conventionalizing Geographic Investigation and Presentation. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 24 (1934): 77; Preston E. James. The Terminology of Regional Description. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 24 (1934): 78-92; Wellington D. Jones. Procedures in Investigating Human Occupance of a Region. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 24 (1934): 93-112; Vernor C. Finch. Written Structures for Presenting the Geography of Regions. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 24 (1934): 113-122; Editor. A Conference on Regions. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 25 (September 1935): 121; Robert B. Hall. The Geographic Region. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 25 (September 1935): 122-136; George T. Renner. A Statistical Approach to Regions. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 25 (September 1935): 137-152; Robert S. Platt. Field Approach to Regions. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 25 (September 1935): 153-174; U.S. National Resources Committee. Regional Factors in National Planning and Development. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1935; Richard Hartshorne. The Nature of Geography: a Critical Survey of Current Thought in the Light of the Past. Lancaster, PA: Science Press Printing Co. for Association of American Geographers, 1939; J. Nicholas Entriken and Stanley D. Brunn, eds. Reflections on Richard Hartshorne’s ‘The Nature of Geography.’ Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers, 1989; Derwent Whittlesey et al. The Regional Concept and the Regional Method. In Preston E. James and Clarence F. Jones. eds. American Geography: Inventory and Prospect. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press for Association of American Geographers, 1954, Pp. 19-68; E. W. Gilbert. Geography and Regionalism. In Griffith Taylor. ed. Geography in the Twentieth Century: a Study of Growth, Fields, Techniques, Aims and Trends. 3rd edition. New York: Philosophical Library, 1957 (1951). Pp. 345-371.]
The Southern Regional Committee, established by the Social Science Research Council and directed by Howard W. Odum, professor of sociology at the University of North Carolina, also promotes a flowering of inquiry into regions and ‘regionalism’ during the 1930s. Research led by this group, which consists mostly of sociologists but includes economists and political scientists, examines the physical and human bases for the creation of regional identities at the sub-national, usually multi-state, scale; the roles performed by such regions within national social, economic, cultural, and political systems; and how to promote regional economic development, particularly in the American South. These regionalism investigations parallel and compliment the research agenda pursued by geographers in their regional geography.
[National Research Council’s Division of Anthropology and Psychology and Social Science Research Council. Conference on Regional Phenomena, April 11-12, 1930. Washington: National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, 1930; Hedwig Hintze. Regionalism. In Edwin R. A. Seligman and Alvin Johnson. eds. Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. 15 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1930-35, Vol. 13, pp. 209-218; Rupert B. Vance. Human Geography of the South. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1932; Howard W. Odum. Southern Regions of the United States. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1936; Howard W. Odum and Harry Estill Moore. American Regionalism: a Cultural-Historical Approach to National Integration. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1938; Lewis Mumford. The Regional Framework of Civilization. In The Culture of Cities. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1938, Pp. 300-347; Merrill Jenson. ed. Regionalism in America. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1951.]
The landmark 15-volume Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences highlights the increasing research in human geography during the first decades of the twentieth century. The volume's editors note that the "interdependence of the social sciences has come to be recognized [during the 1920s] as a concept necessary to their progress. The older sciences had such a great mass of phenomena to arrange and to interpret that each of them was busy in pursuing its own problems. The newer sciences found enough to do in staking out their respective fields [with] the result that all the sciences continued in water-tight compartments...but there has come a slow realization that, while there are all kinds of associations and many angles from which human contacts can profitably be studied, it is a mistake to separate them permanently into independent sections" (vol. 1, xvii). In this context, human geography is described as being "in an excellent position to analyze the interaction between man and his social heritage, on the one hand, and the natural environment, on the other. Through this description and analysis it is of great importance to the social sciences, enabling them to explain the regional peculiarities of human societies and institutions" (vol. 1, 7).
The status of human geography is surveyed in three overview articles-Cultural Geography by Carl Sauer, Human Geography by Camille Vallaux of France, and Economic Geography by Karl Sapper of Germany. Additional topics addressed by geographers include-Land Utilization by Oliver E. Baker, Agriculture and Climate by J. Russell Smith, Acclimatization by Ellsworth Huntington, and Soils by Curtis F. Marbut. Several geographers receive biographical sketches-Pierre D'Ailly, Adriano Balbi, A. F. Büsching, Samuel deChamplain, Henry the Navigator, Al-Idrisi, J. Élisée Reclus, Oskar Peschel, Friedrich Ratzel, Karl Ritter, Ellen Churchill Semple, Petr Petrovich Semenov, Paul Vidal de la Blache, Alexander von Humboldt, and Yaqut. (see International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences entry at 1968 and International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences at 2001)
[Edwin R. A. Seligman and Alvin Johnson. eds. Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. 15 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1930-35.]
South America, by Clarence F. Jones (1893-1991), is the first regional geography of South America published in English.
[Clarence F. Jones. South America. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1930.]
Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan offers its first course in geography, Elements of Geography, taught by Edward C. Prophet in the Department of Geology and Geography. An independent Department of Geography is established in the College of Science and Arts, with Lawrence M. Sommers as head and a faculty of six, in 1955. The department transfers to the College of Social Science in 1961, and eventually grows to over 30 faculty members, with offices in the Natural Science Building. The university’s first M.A. degree in geography is awarded in 1954, and its first Ph.D. degree in geography in 1957 to Yasuo Masai of Japan. By spring 2003, the department awards a total of 472 M.A. and Ph.D. degrees. Separate professional programs administered by the department in landscape architecture and urban and regional planning lead to the degrees of B.L.A. and M.U.R.P. A masters degree program in Geographic Information Sciences (GIS) is initiated in fall 2002, with four degrees completed and seven enrolled in May 2003.
In 1961, the department hosts the last annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers to be held on a college campus. During 1963-68, the department participates in the Michigan Inter-University Community of Mathematical Geographers (MICMOG) jointly with Wayne State University and the University of Michigan. Discussion meetings held in Brighton, Michigan, are attended by faculty and graduate students from the three institutions and 12 issues of Discussion Papers of the Michigan Inter-University Community of Mathematical Geographers are produced.
In 1977, the Atlas of Michigan, directed by Lawrence M. Sommers and involving more than sixty Michigan State University students and faculty, is produced and sells more than 33,000 copies. Also in 1977, an Applied Geography Symposium is held at MSU’s Kellogg Center, with fifteen papers contributed by geography faculty and graduate students applying their specializations. Many geographers from the Midwest attend this first applied geography symposium held in the United States (Winters and Winters).
In 1992, Michigan State University switches from quarter to semester-length terms resulting in numerous geography course content changes and fewer course offerings at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. In 1996, the department establishes the Basic Science and Remote Sensing Institute to focus research from several academic disciplines on land use/land cover change at the global scale. It becomes the Center for Global Change and Earth Observation, an independent unit within the university that remains linked with the Department of Geography, in 2002.
[www.geo.msu.edu; Lawrence M. Sommers. ed. Atlas of Michigan. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, and distributed by W. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1977; Harold A. Winters and Marjorie K Winters. eds. Applications of Geographic Research: Viewpoints from Michigan State University. East Lansing, MI: Department of Geography, Michigan State University, 1977.]
Isaiah Bowman (1878-1950), director of the American Geographical Society (1915-35) and president of Johns Hopkins University (1936-48), becomes the first American to serve as president of the International Geographical Union, which was established in 1922. Other Americans who come to serve as president of the International Geographical Union are George B. Cressey (1896-1963) and Roland J. Fuchs. Americans who come to serve as Secretary-General of the International Geographical Union are George H. T. Kimble, Chauncy D. Harris, and Ronald F. Abler. (see United States entry at 1928)
[Geoffrey J. Martin. One Hundred and Twenty Five Years of Geographical Congresses and the Formation of the International Geographical Union: or, from Antwerp to The Hague. Bulletin of the International Geographical Union 46 (1996): 5-26.]
Home Geographic Monthly, a journal of the Home Geographic Society, begins publication in January 1931. The Home Geographic Society is promoted by W. Elmer Ekblaw and the geography faculty at Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts, and by academic geographers and professional educators located elsewhere. Its major purpose is the creation and promotion of interest in geography among youth. The journal includes articles written by university professors and numerous illustrations, but does not attract a wide audience and ceases publication at the end of its second year with Volume 2 (December 1932).
Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York establishes a Department of Geography in 1931. The university first offered a graduate degree in geography in 1926. The department is part of Syracuse University’s Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Policy, and is the only U.S. Department of Geography to offer a joint M.A. degree in Geography and Public Administration. The department’s Dell Plain Chair in Latin American Geography is the first named professorship in Latin American Geography. [www.syr.edu]
Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States, a landmark publication in American scholarship, is published in 1932. The atlas’ 600-plus maps and 145 pages of text provide a comprehensive geographic perspective on the nation’s past with maps, cogent commentaries and interpretations, and source references. Topics include-natural environment, early exploration and geographical knowledge, native people, land claims, Euro-American settlement, numerous aspects of human geography, military campaigns, etc. It appears in an edition of 5,600 and is out of print by 1949.
This extraordinary work was conceptualized in 1903 by J. Franklin Jameson, who had received his academic training in history and geography at Johns Hopkins University and was then a professor of history at the University of Chicago. Production of the atlas was directed by Charles O. Paullin in the Carnegie Institution of Washington’s Division of Historical Research from 1913 through 1927, and completed by the geographer John K. Wright, then librarian of the American Geographical Society in New York, beginning in 1929. The expertise of numerous geographers and historians was called upon throughout its nearly three-decade emergence. Considered the most comprehensive historical atlas of any country at issuance, it receives the prestigious Loubat Prize from Columbia University in 1933 for a work on North America printed and published in the United States, and three decades later is selected for inclusion in the President’s Library at the White House (Wright 1965).
[Charles O. Paullin and John K. Wright. Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States. Washington and New York: Carnegie Institution of Washington and American Geographical Society, 1932; Ralph H. Brown. Review of Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States. Journal of Geography 32 (1933): 177-178; Charles O Paullin. The Carnegie Institute’s Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States. Journal of Geography 14 (1915): 108-109; John K. Wright. Sections and National Growth: an Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States. Geographical Review 22 (July 1932): 353-360, plus map; John K. Wright. J. Franklin Jameson and the Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States. In Ruth Anna Fisher and William L. Fox. eds. J. Franklin Jameson: a Tribute. Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1965. Pp. 66-79.]
University of Southern California (USC) located in Los Angeles, California offers its first classes in geography (World Regional Geography, Geography of Europe, Geography and Geology of California, and Physical Geography), all of which are presented by Malcolm Havens Bissell. During the 1930s, the Department of Geography is established with Bissell as chair in 1936; undergraduate majors and minors in geography are offered; and the department transfers from the Division of Physical Sciences to the Division of Social Sciences in 1938. Like so many other academic geographers during World War II, Malcolm Bissell is called to Washington, D.C. to work in the Office of Strategic Studies (OSS).
In 1949, John W. Reith joins the USC faculty as chair of the Department of Geography, a position he holds until 1968. The university awards about ten M.A. degrees during the early 1960s but both the B.A. and M.A. degree programs in geography are dropped by the mid-1960s. The program continues through the 1970s providing undergraduate service courses.
In 1979, John C. Weaver, former president of the University of Wisconsin System, joins the USC faculty as Executive Director of the Center for the Study of the American Experience and Distinguished Professor of Geography. The following year he moves to the Department of Geography and serves as chair until retiring in 1985, when Curtis C. Roseman joins the faculty and is appointed chair of the department (he chairs the department until 1992).
Other new faculty are hired in the 1980s and early 1990s including Douglas J. Sherman, Michael J. Dear, Bernard O. Bauer, and Jennifer Wolch. The department experiences dramatic changes; the undergraduate curriculum is completely revised and new major and minor program programs approved, first in 1987 and then in 1999; new M.A., M.S., and Ph.D. programs are approved in 1990 and the first Ph.D. degree is awarded to James A. Tyner in 1995; the department relocates to new quarters in Kaprielian Hall in 1989; new university programs (Environmental Studies in 1993 and an interdisciplinary Ph.D. program in Sustainable Cities in 1999) are initiated with the support of geography faculty; and geography faculty direct the university’s newly established Southern California Studies Center in 1995, and its new Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Laboratory in 1997.
Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces in Urban Geography, a landmark study in American urban geography by Charles C. Colby (1884-1965), is published in Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Based upon empirical analyses conducted during the 1920s that appeared in theses, dissertations, and other studies completed at the University of Chicago, research on New York City prepared by the Regional Plan Association for its Regional Plan of New York and Its Environs project, and Colby's own investigation of 22 cities, the paper provides an interpretation of the spatial restructuring of the "modern city...[as] a dynamic organism constantly in process of evolution." Colby delimits each urban settlement into three spatial units of analysis-"an inner or nuclear zone, a second or middle zone, and an outer or peripheral zone"-and concludes that the spatial reorganization of urban functions such as residences, transportation, and employment among the three zones are best understood in terms of "centrifugal forces which impel functions to migrate from [a city's] central zone toward, or actually to or beyond, its periphery" and "centripetal forces which hold certain functions in the central zone and attract others to it."
Colby recognizes centrifugal forces, subsequently described in terms of suburbanization, decentralization, etc. as a locational analysis process consisting of tradeoffs between the "uprooting tendencies" and "attractive qualities" of sites in monocentric core-dominant urban settlements. While Colby addresses processes that we would recognize as economic, social, cultural, etc., he does not use these terms, preferring instead to focus on their spatialized dimensions-centrifugal and centripetal forces (processes)-operating with reference to the settlement core.
[Charles C. Colby Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces in Urban Geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 23 (March 1933): 1-20, and reprinted in Harold M. Mayer and Clyde F. Kohn. eds. Readings in Urban Geography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959.]
University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, North Carolina establishes a Department of Geology and Geography in 1933, when the university’s first trained geographer, Samuel T. Emory, joins the geology faculty. Geography was a presence in the university community well before this however - the university’s primary geologist from 1892 to 1934, Professor Collier Cobb, taught an occasional course in physical geography and was a member of the Association of American Geographers; and graduate degrees in geography were awarded as well, with the first M.S. and M.A. in 1926 and the first Ph.D. in 1932. By the time an independent Department of Geography is created in 1962, five geographers have served on the faculty, and Samuel T. Emory has chaired the joint geology-geography department, 1949-57.
In fact, geography as a component of the curriculum at the University of North Carolina dates from the university’s inception. The 1795 Plan of Education for the university included a Professor of Natural Philosophy, Astronomy, and Geography; and the initial year’s curriculum (1796) included geography, complete with “the use of Globes, the Geometrical, political and commercial relations of the different nations of the earth… [and] out of about forty students in the University proper the Geography and Arithmetic classes had about ten students each” (Battle 95, 108-109). With some certainty, these eighteenth century origins enable the University of North Carolina to claim title to providing the earliest college geography instruction of any public university in the nation.
Geography experiences significant growth at the University of North Carolina during the 1960s, beginning with the creation of an independent department chaired by John D. Eyre in 1962; publication of the Atlas of North Carolina, edited by Richard E. Lonsdale, in 1967; and expansion to a faculty of ten members by 1969. Revision of the university’s undergraduate curriculum eliminates science laboratory credit for the department's physical geography course in 1970, dropping student enrollments sharply and diminishing funds for graduate students. In the same year, the department launches its monograph series, Studies in Geography, and faculty offices are relocated to the geographically disadvantageous Nash Hall. Nonetheless, the ensuing decade sees the addition of new faculty members; Barry Moriarty establishes the Institute for Economic Development and begins a ten-year term as director in 1972; organization of a major symposium on medical geography in 1974; relocation to Saunders Hall in the center of campus in 1978; and several faculty members become engaged in activities of the Association of American Geographers at both the regional and national levels.
Programmatic improvements continue to the present - major improvements are made in the department’s Geographic Information Science (GIS) program beginning in 1986 and within a few years the creation of the Spatial Analysis Laboratory with an additional staff position for an applied cartographer and information technologies manager; and the department is quite fortunate to receive financial support for its program from several donors: departmental alumnus Andrew McNally IV endows the McNally Award for Excellence in Geography, annually awarded to an outstanding senior; Dr. Voit Gilmore (M.A. 1985, Ph.D. 1987) endows both a distinguished professorship and a travel fund in 1989; Mr. and Mrs. William H Rogers III endow the Samuel T. Emory Travel Fund in honor of the university’s first geographer in 1991; and Andrew McNally establishes the McNally Fund for general program support. Current departmental programs prepare students for B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees in geography.
[www.unc.edu; Kemp P. Battle. History of the University of North Carolina, from Its Beginnings to the Death of President Swain, 1789-1868. Raleigh, NC: Edwards & Broughton Printing Co., 1907; Richard E. Lonsdale ed. Atlas of North Carolina. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967; John Douglas Eyre. Geography at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 198-217.]
Rectangular Statistical Cartogram, an article by the cartographer Erwin J. Raisz (1893-1968), stands as a landmark in American cartography for introducing the first cartogram to be published in the United States. A cartogram is a stylized, as opposed to a realistic, representation of a specific geographic entity. The cartograms Raisz introduces in this article feature representations of the United States that take the shape of a rectangle. These rectangular cartograms of the United States are filled with rectilinear representations of individual states that are proportionate in size to their land area (square miles) or to the size of their resident population. Somewhat similar graphic representations of comparative statistical data for states appeared in the United States as early as Francis A. Walker’s Statistical Atlas of the United States, produced in conjunction with the decennial census of 1870, but these graphic representations incorporated no spatial or geographic relationships among the units of analysis, i.e., individual representations of states were not formed into a representation of the entire country. (see Statistical Atlas entry at 1874)
[Erwin J. Raisz. The Rectangular Statistical Cartogram. Geographical Review 24 (April 1934): 292-296.]
Young Geographers: How They Explore the World and How They Map the World, by Lucy Sprague Mitchell (1878-1967), offers a pioneering ecological approach to the study of geography for young children. This classic book provides creative curricular ideas for elementary and nursery school teachers that simultaneously roots children in, and teaches them to critically engage, their own lifeworlds. Mitchell, a feminist, leader in progressive education reform, author of the famous Here and Now Story series, and a founder of Bank Street College of Education in New York City, writes and prepares the maps for several other innovative books to open the world of geography to children. Her work continues to be timely and important for its developmental approach to education, its relational conception of geography, and its exuberant fostering of the critical capacities of children by focusing on both understanding and questioning the worlds in which they dwell.
[Lucy Sprague Mitchell. Young Geographers: How They Explore the World and How They Map the World. New York: John Day Co., 1934, and New York: Basic Books, 1963; Lucy Sprague Mitchell. Here and Now Story Book. New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1921-48; Lucy Sprague Mitchell. North America: the Land They Live In for the Children Who Live There. New York: Macmillan,1931; Lucy Sprague Mitchell. Manhattan: Now and Long Ago. New York: Macmillan, 1934; Lucy Sprague Mitchell. My Country 'tis of Thee: the Use and Abuse of Natural Resources. New York: Macmillan, 1940; Joyce Anther. Lucy Sprague Mitchell: the Making of a Modern Woman. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1987.]
University of Washington in Seattle, Washington establishes an independent Department of Geography when the geography program is removed from the existing Department of Geology and Geography in 1935. The presence of geography faculty and course offerings at the University of Washington actually date from around 1890. The Department of Geography offers a graduate degree program from its inception, and its first graduate degree had been awarded in 1928. By 2002, the department has awarded 429 M.A. degrees and 247 Ph.D. degrees in geography.
Prior to the arrival of G. Donald Hudson (1897-1989) as departmental chair in 1951, the department focuses on college teaching and geography education. With Hudson chairing the department, its focus alters to emphasize research, foreign area studies, cooperative relationships with other departments within the university, and an exclusive devotion to human geography that does however include a strong resources-environment track.
The mid-1950s usher in what becomes a 25-year emphasis on quantitative analytic approaches to research. During this period, the department plays a major role in initiating the quantitative revolution within American geography; publishes the informal Discussion Paper series (1958-1963); and nurtures a remarkable coterie of doctoral students studying with William L. Garrison, who pioneer the use of statistical analysis and modeling in American geography.
During the 1980s, the department incorporates broader more critical perspectives and geographic information systems (GIS) into both the curriculum and research, and supplements spatial analysis with a resurgence of field work and the utilization of qualitative methods. These changes take place in an atmosphere of remarkable collegiality. An emphasis on theory bridges the various transitions made by the department and unites the faculty, as does the tradition of intense involvement by faculty and students in local issues. The share of women students and faculty increases dramatically during the latter period as well.
Beginning in the mid-1990s, an increased emphasis on undergraduate education significantly raises the number of students enrolled in geography courses and doubles the number of undergraduate students majoring in geography.
Throughout the last 50 years, strengths in four thematic domains consistently characterize the department’s teaching and research: economic geography-transportation (scale, movement, and critical development studies), cartography-GIS (representation), urban-social-political-population-medical (citizenship, access, social justice, and globalization); resources-environment (sustainability). Russia, Asia, and more recently Latin America and Africa, as well as the United States and the local Pacific Northwest region are long-term regional emphases. The department currently offers B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degree programs in geography.
[Joseph Velikonja. Geography at the University of Washington. Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers 56 (1994): 140-171; www.washington.edu.]
The Association of Pacific Coast Geographers (APCG), the nation’s second regional association of professional geographers (the first was the New England Geographical Conference in 1922) is established. It takes on the additional role of serving as the Pacific Coast Regional Division of the Association of American Geographers in 1952. The APCG initiates publication of the scholarly annual, Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers, in the same year. Its publication continues to the present. www.csus.edu/apcg
Mapparium, a large globe designed and built by Chester Lindsey Churchill, a Boston architect, is installed at the headquarters of the Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston in 1935. This 30-foot diameter globe provides a unique approach to the visualization of Earth—it is viewed from inside! Visitors literally walk inside this spherical world map on a clear bridge that passes through the globe. The globe’s map, constructed at a scale of 1:866,140 (one inch equals about 22 miles), is comprised of 605 curved stained-glass sections and includes political boundaries current to the 1930s and selected physical features such as rivers and large urban settlements. It is illuminated from behind (outside the globe) by over 200 programmable light emitting diodes. Mapparium and associated exhibits located in the Mary Baker Eddy Library of the Christian Science Plaza are open to the public.
Isaiah Bowman (1878-1950) is the first geographer to be portrayed on the cover of Time Magazine. The cover-story article focuses on the challenges Bowman faces upon becoming president of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and notes that "the University whose headship Geographer Bowman assumed was not the unique institution it had been when Geographer [Daniel Coit] Gilman was leading it into unexplored fields of knowledge [as the university's first president]" (Time Magazine).
[Time Magazine 27 (March 23, 1936): cover and 39-43 (quote on p. 40); Geoffrey J. Martin. The Life and Thought of Isaiah Bowman. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1980.]
Elements of Geography: Physical and Cultural, the landmark textbook for introductory college geography courses by Vernor C. Finch (1883-1959) and Glenn T. Trewartha (1896-1984), both at the University of Wisconsin, is published by McGraw-Hill Book Co. in 1949. A remarkably successful textbook, subsequent editions appear for three decades, including one issued specifically for training officers during World War II and a final sixth edition in 1967. More than a quarter-million copies are sold. It achieves its greatest impact during the 1950s.
Prepared for an initial, typically large-enrollment first-year college course, Elements of Geography takes a topic by topic instructional approach to both physical and human geography. Emphasis is, as Marvin Mikesell, University of Chicago, would write in 2002, on “the ‘elements’ or ‘features’ of geography [that are] observable and mappable manifestations of nature and culture. Physical or natural features include climate, surface configuration and drainage, vegetation, soils, and earth resources. Cultural or manmade features include population, houses and settlements, agriculture, manufacturing, extractive industries and transportation facilities.”
Representing the generally held view of the basic, i.e., foundational, elements of academic geography in the 1930s, Elements of Geography’s first edition devotes over 90 percent of its 750 pages to physical geography topics. By its third edition (1949), 78 percent of the now 650 page text is devoted to physical geography. For the most part, introductory college geography textbooks following the demise of ‘Finch and Trewartha’ devote themselves to preparing students in either physical geography (with field and laboratory exercises) or human geography, but not both. Finch and Trewartha, along with M. H. Shearer, produce a textbook exclusively for courses in physical geography during this same period – Earth and Its Resources: a Modern Physical Geography.
[Vernor C. Finch and Glenn T. Trewartha. Elements of Geography: Physical and Cultural. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1936; one antecedent edition - Vernor C. Finch. 1935. Elements of Geography. Ann Arbor, MI: Edwards Brothers, Inc., 1935; multiple subsequent editions - Vernor C. Finch and Glenn T. Trewartha. Elements of Geography: Physical and Cultural. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1942; Vernor C. Finch and Glenn T. Trewartha. Elements of Geography: Physical and Cultural. 2 vols. Madison, WI: McGraw-Hill Book Co. for U.S. Armed Forces Institute, 1942; Vernor C. Finch and Glenn T. Trewartha. Elements of Geography: Physical and Cultural. 3rd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1949; Vernor C. Finch, Arthur H. Robinson, and Edwin H. Hammond. Elements of Geography: Physical and Cultural. 4th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1954; Vernor C. Finch, Glenn T. Trewartha, Arthur H. Robinson, and Edwin H. Hammond. Elements of Geography: Physical and Cultural. 5th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1967; Subsequent commentary by Marvin Mikesell. Textbooks that Moved Generations: Elements of Geography: Physical and Cultural. Progress in Human Geography 26 (June 2002): 401-404; Vernor C. Finch, Glenn T. Trewartha, and M. H. Shearer. Earth and Its Resources: a Modern Physical Geography. 3rd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959 (1941).]
The Geographical History of America, by Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) declares, "In the United States there is more space where nobody is than where anybody is. This is what makes America what it is." The words provide what no doubt remains the best two-sentence 25-words-or-less encapsulation of the nation's human geography ever written. Stein employs this statement to summarize the conclusion of her exploration into the relation of human nature (the identity of self) to the human mind (creative-expression), namely that creativity in America is grounded in the geographical settings of its residents. That the setting of essentially all fictional literature is geographically grounded, i.e., possesses a sense of place, is explored in the general and American cases (Mallory & Simpson-Housley, Kazin, Turner, and Conn) and cartographically in literary maps (Hopkins and Buscher).
[Gertrude Stein. The Geographical History of America or the Relation of Human Nature to the Human Mind. New York: Random House, 1936, and in Gertrude Stein: Writings 1932-1946. Literary Classics of the United States, No. 100. New York: Library of America, 1998; William E. Mallory and Paul Simpson-Housley. eds. Geography and Literature: a Meeting of the Disciplines. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1987; Alfred Kazin. A Writer's America: Landscape in Literature. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988; Frederick Turner. Spirit of Place: the Making of an American Literary Landscape. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books, 1989; Peter Conn. Literature in America: an Illustrated History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989; Martha E. Hopkins and Michael Buscher. Language of the Land: the Library of Congress Book of Literary Maps. Washington: Library of Congress, 1999.]
Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland establishes a Department of Geography and Environmental Science in 1936. [www.jhu.edu]
Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois establishes a Department of Geography in 1936 and its graduate program in geography the same year. [www.siu.edu]
The American Guide Series, a project of the depression-era Federal Writer's Project (U. S. Work Projects Administration), begins issuing a series of geographic guidebooks for the nation. In less than a decade, the project publishes guides with detailed place-specific information for each state, major cities, and several regions, plus pictorial guides and other items-a total of over 1,000 individual publications. The guidebooks appear during a period of renewed interest in America as a set of regionally unique places and locales, and as automobiles become the primary means of travel for Americans. More than a third of the contents of state guides are devoted to presenting the state's human and physical geographies ordered along cross-sectional highway traverses. The American Guide Series sets the nation's high water mark for place-specific accounting in geography's chorographic-regional tradition. Nearly a half-century later, historian Neil Harris and geographer Michael Conzen summarize the series' accomplishment-"The genius of the guides was their gift of personality and drama to the American scene, their invocation of the color, the misery, eccentricity, and the grandeur that had overtaken Americans in the course of their settlement" (Harris and Conzen, xxv).
[Marc S. Selvaggio. The American Guide Series: [a list of] Works by the Federal Writers' Project. Pittsburgh, PA: Shoyer's Books, n.d. (1990s); Frederick Gutheim. America in Guide Books. The Saturday Review of Literature. June 14, 1941; Daniel M. Fox. The Achievement of the Federal Writers' Project. American Quarterly 13 (Spring 1961): 3-19; Jerre G. Mangione. The Dream and the Deal: the Federal Writers' Project, 1935-1943. Boston: Little, Brown, 1972; Monty N. Penkower. The Federal Writers' Project: a Study in Government Patronage of the Arts. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977; Neil Harris and Michael Conzen. Introduction to The WPA Guide to Illinois. New York: Pantheon Books, 1983. Pp. xvii-xli.]
Trade Centers and Trade Routes, by Eugene Van Cleef (1887-1973), is the first book written by an American geographer to be used as a textbook in urban geography courses in American universities. The first college courses in urban geography were offered at least as early as 1919 (Brigham).
[Eugene Van Cleef. Trade Centers and Trade Routes. New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1937; Albert Perry Brigham. Geographic Education in America. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution [for 1919]. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1921. Pp. 487-496.]
The Texas Geographic Magazine, the official journal of the Texas Geographic Society begins publication in 1937. The Texas Geography Society was founded in 1933. It continues to publish The Texas Geographic Magazine through 1948. The society disbands in 1950.
General Cartography, by Erwin J. Raisz (1893-1968), is the first textbook in cartography to be published in the United States. This landmark publication is subsequently hailed as “probably the most notable event [in American academic cartography] prior to World War II” (Robinson). Well into the 1930s, few undergraduate courses in cartography are offered in American colleges and universities, and most graduate programs offer only a single such course. The appearance of General Cartography dramatically alters this situation, and the work remains a standard course text and reference volume for decades.
[Erwin J. Raisz. General Cartography. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1938; W. L. G. Joerg. Review of General Cartography. Geographical Review 29 (October 1939): 699-701; Arthur H. Robinson. Geography and Cartography Then and Now. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 69 (March 1979): 97-102.]
The scholarly journal, Journal of Geomorphology, begins publication in 1938. Its publication continues through Vol. 5, December 1942. (see Geomorphology entry at 1987)
University of Massachusetts in Amherst, Massachusetts establishes a Department of Geosciences in 1938 and its graduate program in geography in 1980. [www.umass.edu]
The Nature of Geography, by Richard Hartshorne (1899-1992), provides a historical and methodological argument for the study of the specificity of place and region-the regional and spatial differentiation research traditions within geography. It serves as a focal point of methodological examinations in American geography for decades.
[Richard Hartshorne. The Nature of Geography: a Critical Survey of Current Thought in Light of the Past. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 29 (1939): 171-658, and as The Nature of Geography. Lancaster, PA: Association of American Geographers, 1939 and reprinted with corrections 1961; Richard Hartshorne. Perspective on the Nature of Geography. Monograph Series No. 1. Chicago: Rand, McNally for the Association of American Geographers, 1959; Nine essays. In J. Nicholas Entriken and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. Reflections on Richard Hartshorne's 'The Nature of Geography.' Occasional Publication No. 1. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1989.]
The World in Maps, a geographic exhibition, is presented at the American Geographical Society in New York City in conjunction with the 1939-40 New York World’s Fair (Wright and entry at 1939-45). This large exhibition provides an outstanding example of a form of geographic exhibition that continues to appear from the late 1930s on. They tend to focus on materials relating to the acquisition of basic geographic information by displaying primary materials such as manuscript maps, papers, photographs, and reports, and supplementary materials such as maps, atlases, models, globes, and books that provide interpretations of the basic materials.
Another distinguished example of this primary-material form of geographic exhibition is Geographical Exploration and Topographic Mapping by the United States Government 1777-1952. It is prepared by Herman R. Friis (1905-1989), U.S. National Archives, in 1952 and displayed in the gallery of the U.S. National Archives building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, D.C. While open to all National Archives’ visitors, it is prepared in conjunction with the 17th International Geographical Congress, held in Washington in 1952.
The popularity of this primary-materials form of geographic exhibition continues. More recent examples include exhibits on geographic exploration of the Pacific Ocean and on the American West (Friis 1961 and 1963), geographic exploration of the American West (Benson 1995 and 2002), cartographic history of the Commonwealth of Virginia (Stephenson and McKee), history of atlases (Wolter and Grim), and literary maps (Hopkins and Buscher).
[John K. Wright. Descriptive Catalogue of an Exhibit of Maps, Photographs, Instruments and Other Materials of Geographical Interest at the House of the American Geographical Society. New York: American Geographical Society, 1939; John K. Wright. The World in Maps: the American Geographical Society’s Exhibition. Geographical Review 30 (January 1940): 1-18; American Geographical Society. Milestones in American Geography: an Exhibit Arranged in Commemoration of the Five Hundredth Anniversary of the Invention of Printing. New York: American Geographical Society, 1940; Herman R. Friis. Geographical Exploration and Topographic Mapping by the United States Government 1777-1952: an Exhibit Catalog. Catalog of an exhibition held in conjunction with the International Geographical Congress at the National Archives, Washington, D.C. in 1952. National Archives Publication No. 53-2. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1952; Herman R. Friis. United States Scientific Geographical Exploration of the Pacific Basin 1783-1899. Catalog of an exhibition held in conjunction with the Tenth Pacific Science Congress in Honolulu, Hawaii in 1961. National Archives Publication No. 62-2. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1961; Herman R. Friis. Federal Exploration of the American West Before 1880. Catalog of an exhibition held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Western History Association at the Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City, Utah in 1963. National Archives Publication No. 64-6. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963; Guy Meriwether Benson with William R. Irwin and Heather Moore. Exploring the West from Monticello: a Perspective in Maps from Columbus to Lewis and Clark. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Library, 1995; Guy Meriwether Benson et al. Lewis and Clark: the Maps of Exploration 1507-1814. Charlottesville, VA: Howell Press for the University of Virginia Library, 2002; Richard W. Stephenson and Marianne M. McKee. eds. Virginia in Maps: Four Centuries of Settlement, Growth, and Development. Richmond, VA: The Library of Virginia, 2000; John A. Wolter and Ronald E. Grim. eds. Images of the World; the Atlas through History. Washington: Library of Congress and New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997; Martha E. Hopkins and Michael Buscher. Language of the Land: the Library of Congress Book of Literary Maps. Washington: Library of Congress, 1999.]
Wind chill temperature, which becomes a standard indicator of human sensory response to different atmospheric temperatures, is developed by Paul A. Siple (1908-1968) as part of his doctoral research in geography at Clark University. The wind chill temperature (WCT) index combines wind speed and atmospheric temperature to provide a more accurate measure of the human response to outdoor, especially cold, temperatures than simple atmospheric temperature. The wind chill temperature index is revised by the U.S. National Weather Service in 2001. Siple goes on to become one of America's most renowned Antarctic researchers and president of the Association of American Geographers. (see Siple entry at 1956)
[Paul A. Siple. Adaptation of the Explorer to the Climate of Antarctica. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Worcester, MA: Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, 1939; current wind chill temperature index information is at the National Weather Service, www.nws.noaa.gov/om/windchill.]
1940s - World War II
Engagement of the United States in World War II calls numerous geographers into service in a variety of professional activities, as well as in combat and relief roles. As much as 80 percent of all Americans with training in geography become directly involved in the war effort – with half employed by the federal government, either as civilians (as many as 350 by 1945) or as military (as many as 500 by 1945), and about half involved in military training programs on college campuses. About 200 of those directly involved in geographic research activities are professional geographers, i.e., possess graduate training in geography (Harris, National Research Committee, Russell et al.).
Federal agencies with particularly large concentrations of geographers are the Office of Strategic Services, War Department, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, Economic Defense Board (later Board of Economic Warfare then Office of Foreign Economic Assistance), and Department of State. The largest number of professional geographers work in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), which has a total staff of 13,000 and is headed by Colonel William J. Donovan. Geographers serving in the OSS are concentrated in Washington, D.C., in its Research and Analysis Branch, which includes a Geography Division, Map Division, and regional divisions for Europe-Africa, U.S.S.R., Far East, and Latin America, but also overseas in Europe, Africa, and Asia. The OSS, independently and in conjunction with other agencies, produce regional geographic accounts, field intelligence, some 1,300 general and thematic maps, relief models, and the President’s Globes (see entry at 1942). In 1943, the Joint Intelligence Publishing Board begins publishing the remarkable 34-volume series of Joint Army-Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS), the results of the federal government’s first multi-agency strategic basic intelligence assessment. Combine contributions from twenty agencies, these multi-volume reports provide topographical and geographical information on areas of likely operations extending from Bulgaria across Asia to Japan. Another particularly notable contribution, the Intelligence Photographic Documentation Project (IPDP), examines areas of Europe liberated by Allied forces.
Geographers serving elsewhere in the federal government are concentrated in the War Department, with most in the U.S. Army, within its Military Intelligence Service of the General Staff (G-2) and particularly the Topographic Branch commanded by geographer Colonel Sidman P. Poole (1893-1955), but also the Army Map Service, Quartermaster Corps, Army Air Corps, and field commands; others are called to the U.S. Navy, particularly its Hydrographic Office, and the Marine Corps. The regional landform diagrams of portions of Europe that Armin K. Lobeck (1886-1958) prepares for the Army’s Military Intelligence Service serve as the basis of his Physiographic Diagram of Europe.
At other agencies in Washington, geographers support map production efforts in all federal agencies at the U.S. Board on Geographic Names; conduct overseas economic geographic analyses at the Economic Defense Board and domestically at the War Production Board and the Industrial College of the Armed Forces; and engage in political geographic analyses and map production at the Department of State’s Office of Geographer and Division of Geography and Cartography. The lively exchanges that result from the unprecedented concentration of geographers in Washington and the heroic demands placed upon them professionally, leads to creation of a professional society to formally support the exchange of ideas – the American Society for Professional Geographers (see entry at 1943).
Several hundred geographers contribute elsewhere in the country as civilians to the numerous training programs directed by the War Department, particularly the Army Specialized Training Program’s (ASTP) basic and area-language programs. Academic courses in geography, including World Regions, Physical Geography, Economic Geography, and Political Geography, are part of the basic ASTP program, which is offered at over 200 colleges and universities and trains approximately 140,000 soldiers. Several works in geography are produced for these courses, including both new publications and reproductions of existing works (Department of State et al., U.S. Army Service Forces, Finch and Trewartha, Whittlesey, Jones). Geography works appear outside the federal government as well during this period that serve to educate the general public and professional geographers on war-related topics (Renner, Lobeck et al.).
Also outside the federal government, the American Geographical Society provides the U.S. Department of State with cartographic and geographic research support under contract, and contributes to projects in numerous other federal agencies from early 1942 through war’s end. Eighty some projects undertaken for the Department of State include the preparation of base maps of the world, individual continents, and selected sub-continental regions; the Atlas of World Maps for the Study of Geography in the Army Specialized Training Program; a world map showing the status of official topographic mapping programs; and contributions to technical reports and training textbooks (American Geographical Society, U.S. Department of State, Platt).
When representatives of 50 countries meet at the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco in June 1945, the U.S Department of State’s Territorial Committee is chaired by Isaiah Bowman, geographer and president of Johns Hopkins University, who also had participated in the Peace Conference at the conclusion of World War I (Coughlan). The conference leads to creation of the United Nations, with a charter signing in October 1945.
[Chauncy D. Harris. Geographers in the U.S. Government in Washington, DC, during World War II. Professional Geographer 49 (May 1997): 245-256; National Research Council, Committee on Training and Standards in the Geographic Profession. Lessons from the War-time Experience for Improving Graduate Training for Geographic Research. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 36 (September 1946): 195-214; Joseph A. Russell, Alfred W. Booth, and Sidman P. Poole. Military Geography. In Preston E. James and Clarence F. Jones. eds. American Geography: Inventory and Prospect. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press for Association of American Geographers, 1954. Pp. 484-495; Armin K. Lobeck. Physiographic Diagram of Europe [map]. New York: The Geographical Press, 1944; U.S. Army Service Forces. Geographical Foundations of National Power. ASF Manual M-103-1, 2, & 3, 3 vols. Washington, DC: Army Service Forces, 1944; Vernor C. Finch and Glenn T. Trewartha. Elements of Geography: Physical and Cultural. 2 vols. Madison, WI: Armed Forces Institute, 1944; Derwent S. Whittlesey. The Earth and the State: a Study of Political Geography. Education Manual EM234. Madison, WI: Armed Forces Institute, 1944; Clarence F. Jones. Economic Geography (College) . Education Manual EM230. Madison, WI: Armed Forces Institute, 1944; George T. Renner. Maps: Global War Teaches Global Cartography. Life Magazine 13 (3 August 1942): 57-65; Armin K. Lobeck and Wentworth J. Tellington, with Introduction by John K. Wright. Military Maps and Air Photographs: Their Use and Interpretation. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1944; American Geographical Society. Environment and Conflict in Europe: Eighteen Basic Maps. A.G.S. Special Publication No. 24, 2nd revised edition. Eighteen maps, 115 x 89 cm. New York: American Geographical Society, 1940 (1939); American Geographical Society. Annual Report of the Council for the Year 1944. Geographical Review 35 (April 1945): 314-318; U.S. Department of State Office of the Geographer, Office of Strategic Services, and American Geographical Society. Atlas of World Maps for the Study of Geography in the Army Specialized Training Program. Forty-eight maps at scales from 1:75,000,000 to 1:150,000,000, 27 x 55 cm. ASF Manual M-101. Washington: Army Services Forces, 1943; Raye R. Platt. Official Topographic Maps: a World Index. Geographical Review 35 (April 1945): 175-181; Robert Coughlan. Isaiah Bowman: the World’s Leading Political Geographer, Who Helped Frame American Peace Policy at Versailles, Now Has a New Set of Boundary Worries. Life Magazine 19 (22 October 1945): 118-120, 123-126, 129.]
Experiences during World War II fundamentally reorient the global geographic perceptions of Americans as they come to realize that great-circle distances between the United States and the Eurasian continent across the Arctic are much shorter than transatlantic ocean routes, and that air travel, which is supplanting ocean travel, dramatically increases accessibility to any locality on Earth (Harrison). Achieving one of the basic objectives of geography education in the United States-developing an appreciation of Earth’s human and physical geographies and their interactions at the global scale-requires a major reconsideration of the adequacy of the nation’s geography school textbooks.
The altered global geographic perceptions result in numerous changes to elementary, secondary, and introductory college textbooks (Engelhardt and many others). These changes include the introduction of polar maps, replacement of global maps based on the Mercator projection, new cartographic forms of visualizing global perspectives, the revision of text material describing the ‘shrinking world’ and the spatial immediacy of newly-important localities both within and surrounding the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. School textbooks quickly incorporate what is termed air-age geography (Van Zandt, Huntington, Fleming).
[Richard Edes Harrison. Look at the World: the Fortune Atlas for World Strategy. New York: Knopf, 1944; Nickolaus L. Engelhardt et al. Education for the Air Age: a Guide for Teachers and Administrators. New York: Macmillan, 1942; George T. Renner. Geographic Education for the Air Age: a Text for High School Students. New York: Macmillan, 1942; George T. Renner. Human Geography in the Air Age. New York: Macmillan, 1942; George T. Renner. Maps: Global War Teaches Global Cartography. Life Magazine (1942): 57-65; George T. Renner and associates. Global Geography. New York: Thomas Crowell Co., 1944; Leonard Packard with Bruce Overton and Ben Wood. Our Air-Age World: a Textbook in Global Geography. New York: Macmillan, 1944; Grace Croyle Hankins. Our Global World: a Brief Geography for the Air Age. New York: Gregg, 1944; John H. Bradley. World Geography. Boston: Ginn and Co., 1945 (editions through mid-1950s); James F. Chamberlain. Air-Age Geography and Society. Revised by Harold E. Stewart. Chicago: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1945; Edith West, Dorothy Meredith, and Edgar B. Wesley. Contemporary Problems Here and Abroad. Boston: D. C. Heath and Co., 1947; DeForest Stull and Roy W. Hatch. Our World Today: Asia, Latin America, United States. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1948; Ellsworth Huntington. Geography and Aviation. In Griffith Taylor. ed. Geography in the Twentieth Century: a Study of Growth, Fields, Techniques, Aims and Trends. 3rd edition. New York: Philosophical Library, 1957. Pp. 528-542;Douglas K. Fleming. Cartographic Strategies for Airline Advertising. Geographical Review 74 (January 1984): 76-93.]
The creation of geographic exhibits to illuminate wartime activities in museums and in other locales of public display is one of several ways geographers bring their particular perspectives and understandings of events in World War II to the larger public. In New York City, a major geographic exhibit is on display at the American Geographical Society when the war starts—The World in Maps (see entry at 1939). From October 1939 through the conclusion of World War II, the American Geographical Society displays changing war-related geographic exhibits in conjunction with its ongoing exhibitions.
War-related geographic exhibits also appear elsewhere in the United States. Can America Be Bombed opens in April 1941 at the Science Museum of the Saint Paul Institute in St. Paul, Minnesota. It is the museum’s second exhibition featuring maps to examine U.S. wartime geography, and versions of it are subsequently shown at numerous science, history, and art museums, in Pittsburgh, New York City, Cleveland, and Minneapolis among other places, and at the U.S. Senate and House office buildings in Washington, D.C. St. Paul’s Science Museum presents a series of exhibitions throughout the war: one examines the implications of the size of the Pacific Ocean for U.S. wartime naval strategy; another the recording of events in the European theater (Pownell).
[John K. Wright. Descriptive Catalogue of an Exhibit of Maps, Photographs, Instruments and Other Materials of Geographical Interest at the House of the American Geographical Society. New York: American Geographical Society, 1939; John K. Wright. Exhibit of Maps Pertaining to the War in Europe. Geographical Review 29 (October 1939): 685-686; John K. Wright. The World in Maps: the American Geographical Society’s Exhibition. Geographical Review 30 (January 1940): 1-18; Louis H. Powell. New Uses for Globes and Spherical Maps. Geographical Review 35 (January 1945): 49-58.]
The Great Relief Model, the largest raised-relief or three-dimensional terrain model of the United States (conterminous states) ever produced, is installed at Babson College in Wellsley, Massachusetts. The Great Relief Model-at the scale of about 1:250,000 and measuring 65 feet east-west and 45 feet north-south-is constructed under the direction of Wallace W. Atwood (1872-1949), geographer and president of Clark University. It remains on display at Babson College for public viewing and is regularly visited by school children until it is demolished in 1997.
[Wallace W. Atwood, Jr. The Giant Relief Model of the United States. Journal of Geography 40 (May 1941): 169-172.]
Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, Oklahoma establishes a Department of Geography in 1940 and its graduate program in geography in 1947. [www.okstate.edu]
University of North Carolina in Greensboro, North Carolina establishes a Department of Geography
[www.uncg.edu; Keith G. Debbage and D. Gordon Bennett. Geography at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro: Historical Evolution, 1940-2004. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 188-197.]
A Theory of Location for Cities, the landmark essay by Edward L. Ullman (1912-1976) appears in American Journal of Sociology in 1941. It provides the earliest statement of central place theory in English. Ullman introduces the basis of the piece – “Periodically in the past century the location and distribution of cities and settlements have been studied. Important contributions have been made by individuals in many disciplines. Partly because of the diversity and unco-ordinated nature of the attack and partly because of the complexities and variables involved, a systematic theory has been slow to evolve… A theoretical framework for study of the distribution of settlements is provided by the work of Walter Christaller. The essence of the theory is that a certain amount of productive land supports an urban center. The center [i.e., central place] exists because essential services must be performed for the surrounding land.” Ullman concludes by suggesting the theory’s applicability to the geographic situation of the United States.
Brian J. L. Berry and Chauncy D. Harris (1914-2003), both then at the University of Chicago, subsequently describe central place theory as “the logic of systems of central places [in a settlement system], focusing particularly upon the numbers, sizes, activities, and spatial distribution of such places and their associated regions… [it] is fundamentally concerned with the [spatial] patterns through which wholesale, retail, service, and administrative functions, plus market-oriented manufacturing, are provided to consuming populations.” The initial body of research relating to this aspect of the spatial structure of settlement systems is documented in Central Place Studies. (see Geography of Market Centers and Retail Distribution entry at 1967)
[Edward L. Ullman. A Theory of Location for Cities. American Journal of Sociology 46 (May 1941): 853-864, and in Harold M. Mayer and Clyde F. Kohn. eds. Readings in Urban Geography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959, pp. 202-209; Walter Christaller. Central Places in Southern Germany. Translated from the German by Carlisle W. Baskin. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1966 (1933); Brian J. L. Berry and Chauncy D. Harris. Central Place. In David L. Sills. ed. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 19 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1968; Brian J. L. Berry and Allen Pred. Central Place Studies: a Bibliography of Theory and Applications; including Supplement through 1964. Philadelphia, PA: Regional Science Research Institute, 1965; J. D. Eyre. ed. A Man for All Regions: the Contributions of Edward L. Ullman to Geography. Studies in Geography No. 11. Chapel Hill, NC: Department of Geography, University of North Carolina, 1978; Ronald R. Boyce. ed. Edward L. Ullman. Geography as Spatial Interaction. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 1980.]
Association of American Geographers becomes a constituent society member of the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS). The American Council of Learned Societies, founded in 1919, consists of 63 constituent societies, numerous colleges and universities, and other education-related institutions in 2000. It serves to promote humanistic studies in all fields of the humanities and social sciences, to strengthen relations among national societies devoted to such studies, and to represent constituent societies in the International Union of Academies (Union Academique Internationale).
Surveying and Land Information Systems, a scholarly journal of the American Congress of Surveying and Mapping, begins publication as Bulletin of the National Congress on Surveying and Mapping. Its name changes to Bulletin of the American Congress of Surveying and Mapping in 1942; to Surveying and Mapping in 1944; and to its current name in 1990. Its publication continues to the present.
John K. Wright (1891-1969), librarian (1920-38) and then director (1938-49) of the American Geographical Society, is the first geographer profiled in The New Yorker. The article describes Wright as one who "not only knows but loves geography, and never feels wholly at ease unless he is within sight of a map" (The New Yorker, 6) and provides an account of American Geographical Society activities through the time of World War II.
[E. J. Kahn, Jr. Profiles: Big Geographer [John Kirtland Wright]. The New Yorker 17 (July 26, 1941): 20-24, 27-28, 30; David Lowenthal and Martyn J. Bowden. eds. Geographies of the Mind: Essays in Historical Geosophy in Honor of John Kirtland Wright. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976; Martyn J. Bowden. John Kirtland Wright, 1891-1969. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 60 (June 1970): 394-403.]
Vilhjalmur Stefansson (1879-1962), Arctic explorer, researcher, and writer, is profiled in The New Yorker magazine. Stefansson participates in three Arctic expeditions that focus on acquiring information on human habitation and resource availability as well as the geographic exploration of new areas (Stefansson 1913, 1921,1922). He is one of the first explorers to live with Inuits-Eskimos and then apply knowledge of their lifestyle in furthering his exploration goals. Following his initial phase of active field exploration, which closes in 1918, he continues to conduct research on the Arctic, presents thousands of lectures, and writes-publishing more than 50 books and over 300 articles, including a dozen in the Bulletin of the American Geographical Society and Geographical Review. Prepared to challenge virtually any existing aspect of the geographic understanding of the northern latitudes, derived of decades of Euro-Russian-American exploration, his overall characterization of the North as ‘the friendly Arctic’ wins him world renown, especially in Russia. When the United States enters the era of global-scale air-age geography in the 1940s, his understanding of the Arctic region is much sought by the federal government (Stefansson 1944, Weigert et al.). He joins the faculty of Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire as director of polar studies in 1947. Dartmouth College maintains the immense Stefansson Collection of Polar Exploration that he amassed.
Robert Taylor’s assessment of Stefansson’s career in The New Yorker calls him “the debunker of the North” and notes that “while some explorers, unsettled by Stefansson’s irreverent approach to their profession, argue that he does not take his work seriously enough, the more detached scientists are inclined to consider him the most scholarly and honest man in the field… more than anybody else, [he] has been responsible for the growing awareness that the Arctic is habitable and possesses undeveloped resources of great value. He has also had a good deal to do with getting the government to establish air bases and weather stations in the Arctic.” He is described by his biographer as “the last explorer to discover new lands in the Arctic, [who] fully credited the Eskimos who taught him how to hunt and travel in the region. As an explorer he sought knowledge rather than meaningless goals such as reaching the ‘farthest North’ or achieving ‘the conquest of the pole.’ In this respect his career contrasts with those of famed explorers of his time such as Roald Amundson and Robert Peary” (Hunt 1999). His accomplishments are recognized by numerous geographical societies and celebrated by the U.S. Postal Service with $0.22 commemorative stamp in 1986.
[Robert L. Taylor. Profiles: Klondike Stef [Vilhjalmur Stefansson]. The New Yorker (October 18, 1941): 26-30, 32, 35-36 and (October 25, 1941): 25-28, 30, 32-36; Vilhjalmur Stefansson. My Life with the Eskimos. New York: Macmillan, 1913; Vilhjalmur Stefansson. The Friendly Arctic: the Story of Five Years in Polar Regions. New York: Macmillan, 1921; Vilhjalmur Stefansson. The Northward Course of Empire. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1922; Captain George H. Wilkins and Vilhjalmur Stefansson. The Detroit Arctic Expedition of 1926 and Living by Foraging in Arctic Exploration. New York: American Geographical Society, 1926; Vilhjalmur Stefansson. Arctic Manual. Prepared for the U.S. Army Air Corps. New York: Macmillan, 1944; Hans Weigert, Vilhjalmur Stefansson and Richard E. Harrison. eds. New Compass of the World: a Symposium on Political Geography. New York: Macmillan, 1949 (1944); Vilhjalmur Stefansson. Discovery: the Autobiography of Vilhjalmur Stefansson. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964; G. Edgar Folk, Jr. and Mary A. Folk. eds. Vilhjamur Stefansson and the Development of Arctic Terrestrial Science. Centennial Symposium. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press, 1984; William R. Hunt. Vilhjalmur Stefansson. In John A Garraty and Mark C. Carnes. eds. American National Biography. 24 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, Vol. 20, pp. 613-614; William R. Hunt. Stef: a Biography of Vilhjalmur Stefansson: Canadian Arctic Explorer. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 1986.]
University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida establishes a Department of Geography in 1941 and its graduate program in geography in 1947. [www.ufl.edu]
Human Adjustment to Floods: a Geographical Approach to the Flood Problem in the United States, a landmark geographic study by Gilbert F. White, appears as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Chicago in 1942. In examining areas of the United States where various forms of engineering works have been constructed to control floods, White raises the question-Does the net effect of constructing engineering flood control works in floodplains increase the possibility of damages to human property because once such works are in place, people will feel safer and place still more structures there, thus increasing losses when flooding actually does occur? The volume is described as "nothing less than a comprehensive theory of the geographic approach to the problem of dealing with floods" (Calef) and what "may well [be] the most influential [doctoral] dissertation in U.S. geography" (Kates and Burton). (see Gilbert F. White entry at 2000)
[Gilbert F. White. Human Adjustment to Floods: a Geographical Approach to the Flood Problem in the United States. Chicago: Private edition distributed by University of Chicago Libraries, 1942, and as Research Paper No. 29. Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1945; Wesley C. Calef. Introduction to Human Adjustment to Floods: a Geographical Approach to the Flood Problem in the United States. Research Paper No. 29. Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1945. p. vii, Subsequent commentary by Rutherford H. Platt, Tim O’Riordan, and Gilbert F. White. Classics in Human Geography Revisited: Human Adjustments to Floods: a Geographical Approach to the Flood Problem in the United States. Research Paper No. 29. Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1945. Progress in Human Geography 21 (June 1997): 243-250.; Robert W. Kates and Ian Burton. eds. Selected Writings of Gilbert F. White. 2 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. Selected Writings of Gilbert F. White: Geography, Resources, and Environment. Vol. 1, p. 10.]
President's Globes are presented to President Franklin D. Roosevelt at the White House and to Prime Minister Winston Churchill at 10 Downing Street at Christmas 1942. The identical terrestrial globes are presents from General George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army. Each globe measures 50 inches in diameter and 13 feet in circumference, weighs 750 pounds, and is covered with a map of the world at a scale of 1:10,000,000 that includes a 5-degree graticule, water shown with blue color, permanent and maximum limits of polar pack ice indicated, and land shown with three types of terrain character-lowland or plain, plateau or hilly upland, and mountains-indicated with buff-colored tints. Globes of the same design are installed in the War Department, the Senate Marble Room in the U.S. Capitol, and the Speaker's Lobby of the House in the U.S. Capitol for the duration of World War II. No more than a dozen President's Globes are created.
The idea for creating the globes originates with Colonel William J. Donovan, director of the Office of Strategic Services (the OSS evolves into the Central Intelligence Agency). The globe's map is produced in the Office of Strategic Studies under the direction of Arthur H. Robinson (chief, Map Division of the Research and Analysis Branch), Richard Hartshorne (1899-1992, director of research, Research and Analysis Branch), and Preston E. James (1899-1986, chief, Latin America Division of the Research and Analysis Branch). Final production-printing of the map, its application to the globe, and finishing-is carried out by the school supply firm of Weber Costello Co. of Chicago Heights, Illinois.
[Arthur H. Robinson. The President's Globe. Imago Mundi 49 (1997): 143-152.]
The University of Maryland in College Park, Maryland establishes its geography program when President Harry C. Byrd asks Oliver E. Baker to join its faculty and create the Department of Economic Geography in the university’s College of Business and Public Administration. Baker, who was well known for his distinguished research with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, had served as president of the Association of American Geographers ten years earlier.
In 1946, the department is reorganized as the Department of Geography, and by 1949, 40 graduate students are enrolled in its programs. Dr. Vishwambar Nath is awarded the university’s first Ph.D. degree in geography in 1949, and an additional five Ph.D.s and nine M.A.s are awarded by 1950.
During the 1950s, the two-volume Atlas of the World’s Resources, produced under the direction of William Van Royen and with the assistance of numerous members of the Department of Geography, appears and becomes an international landmark in geography-Volume 1, Atlas of the World’s Resources: the Agricultural Resources of the World, and Volume 2, Atlas of the World’s Resources: the Mineral Resources of the World.
By the mid-1970s, computer mapping is introduced in the ‘Introduction to Cartography’ course; a cartography production lab is established; and cartography is added as an undergraduate major in 1978. The department’s first course in remote sensing is taught in 1980, and during the early 1980s, computer resources and instruction materials are developed for offering geographic information systems (GIS). In 1983, the department becomes the first academic department in a university to use the new geographic information systems (GIS) software Arc/InfoTM (Version 2.0) developed by ESRITM, and a year later the undergraduate cartography major is changed to geographic information systems and cartography.
The Department of Geography transfers to the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences when it is formed in 1987, and creates a series of new programs: the ‘Geography/Library Science (GELS)’ curriculum, a dual M.A. program with a full offering of computer-based spatial analysis and information management, developed in conjunction with the Department of Library Science in 1988; and two environmental sciences and policy program (ENSP) majors, ‘Land Use, and Environmental Mapping’ and ‘Data Management’ in 1997. In recent years, the Department of Geography has consistently ranked among the University of Maryland’s top grant earning departments.
[William Van Royen. Atlas of the World’s Resources. 2 vols. Atlas of the World’s Resources: the Agricultural Resources of the World. and Atlas of the World’s Resources: the Mineral Resources of the World. New York: Prentice-Hall for the University of Maryland, 1952-54.]
University of North Dakota in Grand Forks, North Dakota establishes an independent Department of Geography when the program in geography separates from the Department of Geology and Geography in 1942. Vernice Margaret Aldrich serves as acting head of the new department.
Geography’s presence at the University of North Dakota prior to the creation of an independent department dates from the university’s creation in 1883. At that time, Henry Montgomery, vice-president of the university and professor of natural science, includes basic geographic concepts in his courses, and by 1885, physical geography, map drawing, and meteorology are offered in the Department of Geology. Fulia Bertine Rue is awarded the first master’s degree in geography in 1920, with the thesis, The Economic Geography of the Lignite Coal of North Dakota. The Department of Geology offers a minor in physiography in 1923, which is replaced by the option of a major or minor-degree program in geography in 1925. The Department of Geology and Geography emerges in 1932. The university’s one and only Ph.D. degree in geography is awarded to Arthur Carl Selke in 1935, with the dissertation, The Transportation System of Germany with Some Application to North Dakota Conditions.
The Department of Geography awards its first M.A. degree to Melvin E. Kazeck in 1947, with the thesis, Audio-Visual Aids for the Modern High School. It establishes the local chapter of Gamma Theta Upsilon the following year. In 1973, the Institute for Remote Sensing, which later evolves into the Geographic Analysis and Remote Sensing Laboratory, is created by Roland D. Mower and Gary E. Johnson and the Forum for Contemporary Geographic Issues is established by Gary E. Johnson in 1974. The Institute for Remote Sensing sponsors the Innovations in Land Use Management Conference in 1976 and 1978. Bernt Lloyd Wills, former faculty member and initial faculty advisor to the Gamma Theta Upsilon chapter, is honored with the naming of a scholarship fund in 1985 that honors an outstanding undergraduate geography major each semester. The department proudly celebrates the unusual distinction of hosting regional meetings of both Canadian and American geographers – and the Prairie Division of the Canadian Association of Geographers in 1982, 1888, and 1992, and the Great Plains/Rocky Mountain Division of the Association of American Geographers in 1979 and 1995.
Since 1970 the facilities of the Department of Geography have moved first from Merrifield Hall to Babcock Hall, then to Gillette Hall around 1977, and in 1992 to its current location in Clifford Hall. The department currently offers B.S., M.A., and M.S. degrees in geography and a Graduate Certificate in GISc (geographic information science).
[www.und.edu; R. C. Brown. Departmental Histories: Geography. Grand Forks, ND: Department of Geography, University of North Dakota, 1983; William A. Dando and Gary E. Johnson. eds. Innovations in Land Use Management Symposium. Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota Press, 1976.]
American Society for Geographical Research is established in Washington, D.C. It is renamed the American Society for Professional Geographers in 1944. The purpose of the organization, according to its constitution, is "to promote and stimulate interest in all branches of the science of geography and the development of its applications in government, private enterprise, and education; to foster a better public appreciation of the practical possibilities inherent in modern geography, and of the importance of proper professional training; to aid in improving professional training in geography; to serve as a bond among all-professional and non-professionals-who are interested in the various phases of geography, applied as well as theoretical; to aid in serving the professional needs of the members and in directing their professional efforts; and to foster and improve contacts with other societies and institutions in geography and related fields" (24-25). The American Society for Professional Geographers merges with the Association of American Geographers in 1948.
[E. Willard Miller. ed. American Society for Professional Geographers: Papers Presented on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of Its Founding. Occasional Publication No. 3. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1993.]
The Professional Geographer, a scholarly-professional journal of the American Society for Geographical Research and then the American Society for Professional Geographers, begins publication as Bulletin of the American Society for Geographical Research. The name is changed to The Professional Geographer in 1946. Its original series is issued in six volumes (1943-46). A new series begins publication in 1949 that continues to the present as a publication of the Association of American Geographers.
Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor (1875-1966), editor of National Geographic Magazine (1903-54) and president of the National Geographic Society (1930-54), is profiled in The New Yorker. The article notes how Grosvenor's editorship of the National Geographic Magazine transformed it from a scholarly-professional journal that served geographers who were scientists and educators to one that appealed to a general audience-the "geography unshackled" of the article's title. The journal's transformation under his half-century editorship propels growth in the membership of the National Geographic Society from around 3,000 to over 2,000,000. Grosvenor is described as "a kindly, mild-mannered, purposeful, poker-faced, peripatetic man of sixty-seven, endowed with the sprightly air of an inquiring grasshopper, with a clear pink complexion, and with the mixture of business sagacity, intellectual curiosity, regard for tradition, and tolerance of temperate innovation that is sometimes found in the president of a fairly wealthy college" (The New Yorker September 25, 27).
[Geoffrey T. Hellman. Profiles: Geography Unshackled [Gilbert H. Grosvenor]. The New Yorker 19 (September 25, 1943): 26-30, 33, 34, (October 2, 1943): 27-32, 34, 35, and (October 9, 1943): 27-32, 35, 36; Gilbert H. Grosvenor. The National Geographic Society and Its Magazine: a History. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1957; Gilbert H. Grosvenor. The Romance of the Geographic. National Geographic Magazine 123 (October 1963): 516-585; Keir B. Sterling. Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor. In John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes. eds. American National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Vol. 9, pp. 663-664.]
The Dymaxion World, a map/polyhedral globe created by R. Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983), is introduced to Americas in an article appearing in Life Magazine, the extremely popular (circulation 4 million) photojournalism magazine that is published weekly from 1936 to 1972. The article's featured cutout map/globe, created by Richard Edes Harrison and magazine staff artists, is projected onto 14 pieces of paper, eight triangles and six squares, which can be left flat and arranged to suit the viewer's preferences, or assembled into a 14-sided polyhedral (cuboctahedral) globe. The article describes the cutout map/globe in its World War II context-"The President of the U.S. keeps a 50-in.-diameter globe close enough to his desk so that he need only swing his chair to consult it [see President's Globe entry at 1942]...The student-and master-of political geography is interested in true, relative geographical locations of the Great Powers, and in the strategy of communications on the great-circle (shortest distance) routes between them. He must be able to visualize the world's geographical layout not only from his own vantage point, but in the divergent perspectives of other nations and their political geographers" (42).
The Dymaxion World map/globe "embodies [Fuller's] effort to resolve the dilemma of cartography: how to depict as a flat surface this spherical world, with true scale, true direction and correct configuration at one and the same time...For the layman, engrossed in belated, war-taught lessons in geography, the Dymaxion World map is a means by which he can see the whole world fairly and all at once" (41). Five flat arrangements-North Pole Layout, Mercator World, British Empire, Heartland, and Jap Empire-of the map's 14 sections are displayed with commentary. The cutout map displays country boundaries and names, and selected physical features such as mountains and rivers, but its principal subject is temperature, depicted with 18 land and 8 water temperature zones. In explaining the importance of temperature, the article states that "the major centers of modern civilization lie within...the zone where average January temperature ranges from 22° to 42°...Here live 56% of the total human population. They control 84% of world's mechanical horsepower and, in consequence, dominate the territories and people outside...It is the optimum temperature zone for the well-being and efficiency of human beings" (43).
The idea of the polyhedral globe dates from at least the sixteenth century. Designs for several appear in Albrecht Dürer's (1471-1528) Unterweysung der Messung mit dem Zirke und Richtscheyt... , but never has one been introduced to so many people at one time (Snyder). Fuller's globe is one of several polyhedral globes introduced during the 1940s, when changing global perceptions stimulate interest in 'air-age geography' (Fisher and Bradley). An updated world map/globe employing Fuller's projection is available from the Buckminster Fuller Institute, www.bfi.org.
[Life Presents R. Buckminster Fuller's Dymaxion World. Life Magazine 14 (March 1, 1943): 41-55, with an 8-page pullout section with Fuller's map printed in color on heavy stock paper; John P. Snyder. Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993; Irving Fisher. A World Map on a Regular Icosahedron by Gnominic Projection. Geographical Review 33 (1943): 605-619; A. D. Bradley. Equal-Area Projection on the Icosahedron. Geographical Review 36 (January 1946): 101-104.]
University of Kentucky in Lexington, Kentucky establishes a Department of Geography in 1944 and its graduate program in geography in 1946.
[www.uky.edu; P. P. Karan and Stanley D. Brunn. Sixty Years of Geography at the University of Kentucky, 1944-2004. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 166-172.]
The Nature of Cities, the landmark essay by Chauncy D. Harris (1914-2003) and Edward L. Ullman (1912-1976), appears in The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, in an issue devoted to ‘Building the Future City’ in 1945. Harris and Ullman discuss the economic basis of American cities; provide a categorization of cities in terms of their functions within a larger system of cities; and review three descriptive models of urban spatial structure and expansion – concentric zones, sectors radiating out from the core, and multiple-nuclei. The piece becomes the most widely quoted article in urban geography’s expansive research literature, and will be reproduced in full in more than 300 books during the subsequent half century. (see A Theory of Location for Cities entry at 1941)
[Chauncy D. Harris and Edward L. Ullman. The Nature of Cities. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science Topical issue on Building the Future City, edited by Robert B. Mitchell. 242 (November 1945): 7-17, also in Harold M. Mayer and Clyde F. Kohn. eds. Readings in Urban Geography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959, pp. 277-282; Edward L. Ullman. The Nature of Cities Reconsidered. Papers and Proceedings of the Regional Science Association 9 (1962): 7-23; Chauncy D. Harris. Patterns of Cities. In J. D. Eyre. ed. A Man for All Regions: the Contributions of Edward L. Ullman to Geography. Studies in Geography No. 11. Chapel Hill, NC: Department of Geography, University of North Carolina, 1978, pp. 66-79; Chauncy D. Harris. Diffusion of Urban Models: a Case Study. Urban Geography 19 (January-February 1998): 49-67; Robert W. Lake, John Agnew, Elisabeth Lichtenberger, and Chauncy D. Harris. Urban Geography Special Issue: Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman, ‘The Nature of Cities’: a Fiftieth Year Commemoration. 18 (January-February 1997): 1-35; George J. Demko and Roland J. Fuchs. eds. Geographical Studies on the Soviet Union: Essays in Honor of Chuancy D. Harris. Research Paper No. 211. Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1884; Michael P. Conzen, ed. World Patterns of Modern Urban Change: Essays in Honor of Chauncy D. Harris. Research Paper No. 217-218: Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1985.]
Bowling Green State University in Bowling Green, Ohio offers geography courses in its Department of Geography and Geology, which enables students to receive a Bachelors degree with a minor in geography. When Lowry Karnes, the university's first trained geographer, joins the faculty in 1946, the number of courses in geography increases and an undergraduate major in geography is offered for the first time. In 1952, a separate Department of Geography is established with Lowry Karnes as chair; and in 1967, the department transfers from the College of Business Administration to the College of Arts and Sciences and relocates to Hanna Hall where it remains.
George Washington University in Washington, D. C. establishes a Department of Geography with Harold T. Straw offering three full-year courses-an introductory course, and two regional courses, The Geography of North America and The Geography of South America. Robert D. Campbell becomes chair of the department in 1947. The department currently offers the B.A. and M.A. degrees in geography.
Pennsylvania State University in University Park, Pennsylvania establishes a Department of Geography in 1945 and its graduate program in geography the following year. [www.psu.edu]
Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois establishes a Department of Geography in 1945. Though currently without a Department of Geography, Northwestern University continues to offer an undergraduate geography major. [www.northwestern.edu]
University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa establishes a Department of Geography in the College of Liberal Arts in 1946. The new department, with a faculty of five and offering full undergraduate and graduate degree programs, is chaired by Harold H. McCarty (1901-1987). Emergence of an independent Department of Geography is preceded by two decades of geography’s presence in the university’s College of Commerce. Harold H. McCarty, with a Ph.D. in economics and a member of the College of Commerce faculty, introduces a course in Commercial Geography in 1925 and Industrial Geography of the United States in 1930. Recognition of geography as a non-degree program within the College of Commerce occurs in 1938, when course offerings include Human Geography, Economic Geography, Geography of South America, and Geography of North America. McCarty’s landmark book, The Geographic Basis of American Economic Life, also appears during this early period. Beginning in the 1940s, Fred K. Schaefer (1904-1953), a refugee from Germany, offers Economics of Modern Dictatorships, Geography of Europe, and Geography of the Soviet Union among other courses. Schaefer’s landmark paper, Exceptionalism in Geography: a Methodological Examination, appears just after his death in 1953. During World War II, several persons teach geography courses in the university’s Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) provided for armed forces personnel.
Following establishment as an independent department in 1946, Geography’s faculty remains at five members until the early 1960s when it increases to seven. The department’s program, which pioneers the application of rigorous statistical techniques in analytic human geography from the 1950s - embodied in the landmark monograph The Measurement of Association in Industrial Geography - emphasizes the training of graduate students and the pursuit of research and professional efforts. Student enrollment, primarily due to increasing numbers of undergraduates, triples during the 1960s. By the early 1970s, 45-50 graduate students are pursuing advanced degrees, and when the department strengthens its commitment to college-level instruction, the number of undergraduate majors increases to 50. The 1982 National Research Council ranking of graduate programs places Iowa geography at 13th out of 48 programs in terms of quality of faculty and 10th in terms of effectiveness (Jones et al.). In 1984, the department relocates from the old Library and Armory buildings to Jessup Hall on the main campus quadrangle. By 1990 its faculty increases to thirteen. The 1993 National Research Council ranking of graduate programs places Iowa geography 17th in the U.S. (Goldberger et al.). In 1995 a geographic information systems (GIS) laboratory is created with a full complement of high-end computers donated by a major computer manufacturer.
During the 2000s, the number of undergraduate majors increases to 135 and the number of graduate students remains consistent at 45-50. The dominant areas of teaching and research are environmental studies and geographic information systems (GIS). Since its inception in 1946, the department has awarded 151 Ph.D. degrees in geography.
[Harold H. McCarty. The Geographic Basis of American Economic Life. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1940; Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1971; Fred K. Schaefer. Exceptionalism in Geography: a Methodological Examination. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 43 (September 1953): 226-249; Harold H. McCarty, John C. Hook, and Duane S. Knos. The Measurement of Association in Industrial Geography. Iowa City, IA: Department of Geography, University of Iowa, 1956; Harold H. McCarty. Geography at Iowa. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 69 (March 1979): 121-124; Leslie J. King. Areal Associations and Regressions. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 69 (March 1979): 124-128; William Bunge. Fred K. Schaefer and the Science of Geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 69 (March 1979): 128-132; Lyle V. Jones, Gardner Lindzey, and Porter E. Coggeshall. eds. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States. 5 vols. Washington: National Academy Press, 1982; Marvin L. Goldberger, Brendan A. Maher, and Pamela E. Flattau. eds. Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Continuity and Change. Washington: National Academy Press, 1995.]
The Great Plains-Rocky Mountain Division of the Association of American Geographers (AAG) is established as the Midwestern Division of the American Society of Professional Geographers (ASPG) by Nels A. Bengston (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Clark N. Crain (University of Denver), and Harold A. Hoffmeister (University of Colorado, Boulder) at its initial meeting in Denver, Colorado. The American Society of Professional Geographers subsequently merges with the Association of American Geographers to form a much expanded Association of Geographers in 1948, and the Midwestern Division designation changes to Great Plains-Rocky Mountain Division in 1950.
Today the Great Plains-Rocky Mountain Division incorporates the states of Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas in the United States, and the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan in Canada. From its inception in 1946 through 2002, the division has conducted 57 annual meetings at 28 different venues. These regional meetings, which continue, have brought together thousands of academic and non-academic geographers alike to share hundreds of formal presentations and hundreds of local field expeditions. The division published Great Plains-Rocky Mountain Geographical Journal from volume 1 (1972) through volume 13 (1985).
Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana establishes a Department of Geography, chaired by Otis P. Starkey, when the geography program detaches from the Department of Geology and is located in Rawles Hall. Courses in geography were offered by Stephen S. Visher and others in the Department of Geology since 1919, and six Masters degrees in geography were granted prior to establishment of a separate department. In 1957, George H. T. Kimble becomes chair and the department relocates to Kirkwood Hall. During the late 1960s, a program reorientation begins that emphasizes analytic approaches to both human and physical geography. During this same period, programmatic ties are initiated between the department and the School of Public and Environmental Affairs and Area Studies programs. Atmospheric sciences is added as a specialization within the department in 1985 after the two remaining geomorphologists transfer to the Department of Geology. In 1991, the department relocates to its current facilities in the Student Building. The department currently offers the Bachelors, Masters and Doctors degrees in geography, with specialties in atmospheric sciences, the environment, geographic information science, and urban and regional systems. [www.indiana.edu]
Kansas State University in Manhattan, Kansas establishes a Department of Geography in 1946 and its graduate program in geography in 1961. [www.ksu.edu]
University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia establishes a Department of Geography in 1946 and its graduate program in geography in 1951.
[www.uga.edu; Merle C. Prunty. Geography in the South. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 69 (March 1979): 53-58; Merle C. Prunty. Merle C. Prunty on the Origins and Early Philosophic Base of the Department of Geography at the University of Georgia. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 288-290; Fraser Hart. Early Days at Georgia. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 218-225; James O. Wheeler. James A. Barnes, University of Georgia, 1951-1977: America’s First Quantitative Geographer, an Interpretation. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 364-372; William G. Moseley. Yankee Go Home: Tales of a Northerner Educated in the South. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 386-391; Sam Ock Park. Where There is a Dream, There is a Way: The U.S. South in My Academic Life. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 392-399.]
University of Miami in Miami, Florida establishes a Department of Geography and Regional Studies in 1946. [www.miami.edu]
University of Oklahoma in Norman, Oklahoma establishes a Department of Geography in 1946. The university first offered graduate degrees in geography in 1930. [www.ou.edu]
Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire establishes a Department of Geography in 1947. [www.dartmouth.edu]
Middlebury College in Middlebury, Vermont establishes a Department of Geography in 1947. [www.middlebury.edu]
University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas establishes a Department of Geography in 1947. Walter M. Kollmorgen, who joined the university faculty from the U.S. Department of Agriculture the previous year, chairs the new department. Courses in regional geography have been offered in the Department of Geology since the 1930s. The new geography program, located in Lindley Hall, expands rapidly, and by 1956 its faculty includes Thomas R. Smith, George F. Jenks, A. William Küchler, and David Simonett in addition to Kollmorgen. The department’s first M.A. degree is awarded in 1949 and its first Ph.D. in 1959.
The geography programs for undergraduate and graduate students broaden and are enhanced during the 1960s and 1970s with significant additions to the faculty, primarily in physical and human geography specialties and with relatively fewer members emphasizing regional geography. Adjustments during the 1980s capitalize on the department’s long-standing strengths of physical geography, including geomorphology, landscape evolution, plants, and soils; human geography, including cultural ecology, economic development, historical, humanistic, political and population specialties; interdisciplinary regional programs on East Asia, Africa, Latin American, Russia-East Europe, and United States; and analytic techniques, including remote sensing, cartography, and geographic information system (GIS) applications.
In 2003 the university’s Atmospheric Science Program rejoins Geography after a 20-year hiatus in the Department of Physics and Astronomy. Programs developed during the 1980s in physical and human geography specialties, regional studies, and analytic techniques continue to the present. The library of the University of Kansas maintains the outstanding Thomas R. Smith Map Collection, named for the professor of geography who established the collection.
University of Arkansas in Fayetteville, Arkansas establishes a Division of Geography in its Department of Geosciences in 1947 and its graduate program in geography in 1948. [www.uark.edu]
University of Chicago Geography Research Papers, a series of scholarly research monographs, begins publication as Research Papers. Initially published by the University of Chicago's Department of Geography, the series continues as a publication of the University of Chicago Press. Over 230 monographs are published by 2000.
Historical Geography of the United States, a landmark publication by Ralph H. Brown appears in 1948. It represents the first attempt to systematically provide, in the author's words "a survey of the character of American regions in earlier times (Brown iv)” in terms of each ones’ physical and human geographies. Prior to its publication, presentation of the historical geography of the United States in college courses is based upon Ellen Churchill Semple’s American History and Its Geographic Conditions, or is the province of classroom lectures (Barrows). The first sequel to Brown's work, a volume of reprinted essays edited by David Ward, does not appear for another three decades. The blossom of volumes on the historical geography of the United States that appear in the closing decades of the century demonstrate a new level of commitment by academic geographers to the geographic scholarship of America's past (Mitchell and Groves, Conzen, Meinig).
[Ralph H. Brown. Historical Geography of the United States. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1948; Ellen Churchill Semple. American History and Its Geographic Conditions. Boston: Houghton Mifflin and Co., 1903; Harlan H. Barrows. Lectures on the Historical Geography of the United States, 1933; edited by William A. Koelsch. Research Paper No. 77. Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1962; David Ward. ed. Geographic Perspectives on America's Past: Readings on the Historical Geography of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979; Robert D. Mitchell and Paul A. Groves. eds. North America: the Historical Geography of a Changing Continent. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1987, 2nd ed. edited by Thomas F. McIlwraith and Edward K. Muller, 2001; Michael P. Conzen. ed. The Making of the American Landscape. Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990; Donald W. Meinig. The Shaping of America. 4 vols. Vol. 1, Atlantic America, 1492-1800, Vol. 2, Continental America, 1800-1867, Vol. 3, Transcontinental America, 1850-1915, Vol. 4, Global America, 1915-1992. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1986-200?; Thomas J. Curran. Ralph H. Brown. In John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes. eds. American National Biography. 24 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Vol. 3, pp. 728-729.]
Geography program is established in the U.S. Navy’s Office of Naval Research (ONR) in Washington, D.C. in 1948. The Secretary of the Navy established an office for scientific research in May 1945, which was formally authorized by Congressional legislation as the Office of Naval Research the following year. During its first year ONR funds 200 research contracts totaling about $22 million, mostly with university-based researchers.
Commander J. Ward Brock, U.S. Navy, head of the new Geography Branch, and subsequent administrators direct a program that provides financial support for both physical and human geography (Russell, Pruitt). The program provides financial support for a series of basic scientific research efforts that include creation of the Coastal Studies Institute at Louisiana State University; meetings to prepare American Geography: Inventory and Prospect (see entry at 1954); a Foreign Field Research Program administered by the Division of Earth Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council that provides grants to nearly 100 individuals between 1955 and 1966; a study on emerging trends in scientific geography during the 1960s (Ackerman, entry at 1965); a 1965 National Atmospheric and Space Administration (NASA) symposium on the uses of remote sensing imagery from space (NAS-NRC), and numerous individual research projects.
[Joseph A. Russell. Aides to Geographic Research Afforded by the Office of Naval Research. Professional Geographer 2 (November 1950): 35-39; Anon. Announcement of the Office of Naval Research Contracts in Geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 43 (March 1953): 1-3; Evelyn L. Pruitt. The Office of Naval Research and Geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 69 (March 1979): 103-108; Edward A. Ackerman et al. The Science of Geography: Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Geography of the Earth Sciences Division. Publication 1277. Washington: National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, 1965; NAS-NRC. Spacecraft in Geographic Research. Publication 1353. Washington: National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, 1966.]
The World Land Use Survey is proposed by Samuel Van Valkenburg (1891-1976) at the 16th International Geographical Congress in Lisbon, Portugal with this vision statement-"If a double graph is constructed representing the upper and lower levels of standard of life through the centuries of history it will show that the two lines, once close together, have in late centuries, and especially in the last decades, deviated widely... increased understanding of what life can mean materially has penetrated to the remotest corners of our world, and instead of any longer being resigned, the masses are turning toward discontent and unrest. This mass movement which can be called the awakening of the have-nots, threatens to overthrow the foundations of our civilization. From the standpoint of decency, as well as of self-preservation, it is essential that we look for methods to improve [living] conditions [worldwide]. Something should be done and even done soon, otherwise it will be too late...It is my urgent plea that in this time of stress, the voice of geography be heard over the world, announcing a project to promote man's best use of his resources that all peoples of the world may benefit" (Van Valkenburg 1949, 237-9).
The International Geographical Union establishes the Commission on a World Land Use Survey, initially chaired by Van Valkenburg, 1949-56, and then by L. Dudley Stamp of Great Britain and Hans H. Boesch of Switzerland) to carry out Van Valkenburg's proposal. During the ensuing years, the project receives support from national governments, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the Pan American Institute on Geography and History through its Committee on Land Classification and Land Use, among other organizations. It produces a series of preliminary regional land use inventories, finished land-use maps and monographs, and several methodological discussions in both the World Land Use Survey's own Occasional Papers and Monographs and a variety of national publications through the early 1970s. Each of these publications is derived from extensive field investigation and the use of aerial photographs. Much like the International Map of the World project at a scale of 1:1,000,000, interest in the project withers as the potential of emerging satellite remote sensing technologies for uniform inventorying and mapping at the global scale becomes apparent. (see International Map of the World entry at 1904)
[Samuel Van Valkenburg. A World Inventory. Economic Geography 25 (October 1949): 237-239; Samuel Van Valkenburg. The World Land Use Survey. Economic Geography 26 (January 1950): 1-5; International Geographical Congress. Report of the Commission on World Land Use Survey for the Period 1949-1952. Worcester, MA: School of Geography, Clark University, 1952; [Report of IGU] Commission on Inventory of World Land Use. In National Committee of the International Geographical Union. Proceedings [of the Eighth General Assembly and Seventeenth International Congress]. Washington: U.S. National Committee of the International Geographical Union, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, n.d. Pp. 168-191; Charles Y. Hu. Some Basic Problems Concerning Inventory of World Land Use. Journal of Geography 53 (March 1954): 123-131; L. Dudley Stamp. Land Use Surveys with Special Reference to Britain. In Griffith Taylor. ed. Geography in the Twentieth Century: a Study of Growth, Fields, Techniques, Aims and Trends. New York: Philosophical Library, 1957 (1951). Pp. 372-393; George Kish. A New Land-Use Map of Italy. Geographical Review 48 (April 1958): 270-271.]
Georgia State University in Atlanta, Georgia offers its first geography courses in 1949 when the university is still known as the Atlanta Division of the University of Georgia. The Department of Geography is created in 1967 and establishes a M.A. degree program in 1971. The department merges with the anthropology faculty to form the Department of Anthropology and Geography in 1997.
[www.gsu.edu; Sanford H. Bederman. A Brief Memoir of the Geography Department at Georgia State University in Atlanta. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 151-165.]
Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in New Brunswick, New Jersey establishes a Department of Geography in 1949 and its graduate program in geography in 1956. [www.rutgers.edu]
University of Texas at Austin, Texas establishes a Department of Geography in 1949 and its graduate program in geography in 1950. [www.utexas.edu]
Lands and Peoples of the World, a series of geography textbooks for elementary schools edited by Robert M. Glendinning, appear. These volumes, the first post-World War II series of graded school texts, update the two extremely successful co-authored series created during the 1920s by H. Barrows & Edith P. Parker and Wallace W. Atwood & Helen G. Thomas (see Human Geography entry at 1920s). The Lands and Peoples series of school textbooks incorporates the new ‘air-age geography’ perspective, i.e., increased levels of connectivity among world regions that result from new air transportation technologies developed during World War II; provides most maps at the common scale of 1:40,000,000; and features maps produced by Richard Edes Harrison, the American cartographer who dramatically altered global cartographic perspectives during World War II (Saveland; Harrison).
[Robert M. Glendinning. Lands and Peoples of the World. Boston: Ginn and Co., 1957; Delia Goetz. At Home Around the World. Fourth grade. Boston: Ginn and Co., 1958; Katheryne T. Whittemore. The United States and Canada. Fifth grade. Boston: Ginn and Co., 1957; Marguerite Uttley and Alison E. Aitchison. Latin America, Africa, and Australia. Sixth grade. Boston: Ginn and Co., 1957; and Robert M. Glendinning. Eurasia. Seventh grade. Boston: Ginn and Co., 1958; Robert N. Saveland. Richard Edes Harrison’s Contribution to School Geography. Journal of Geography 93 (July-August 1994): 204-205; Richard Edes Harrison. Look at the World: the Fortune Atlas for World Strategy. New York: Knopf, 1944.]
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is established as an independent agency of the U.S. federal government to fund basic research in the sciences in 1950. In carrying out its mission “to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; and to secure the national defense,” NSF now awards about 19,000 research grants a year (NSF Internet site).
The National Science Foundation emerges as an agency of the federal government from a debate following World War II over whether the government should continue funding basic scientific research in peacetime as it had during the war, i.e., following the model of the Office of Scientific Research and Development (1941-47). Critical in that discussion were the roles of physicist Vannevar Bush, then head of the Carnegie Institution of Washington and director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, and geographer Isaiah Bowman, then president of Johns Hopkins University and chair of the Committee on Science and the Public Welfare (Bush, Penick, Kevles, Noble).
NSF support for research in human geography, as with other social sciences, emerges slowly. It is first recognized in 1955, when a program for the sociophysical sciences is created in the Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences Division, to fund research in mathematical social science, human geography, economic engineering, statistical design, and the history, philosophy, and sociology of science. In 1958, formal programmatic recognition is given to all social sciences when related programs are consolidated in the Office of Social Science (Mazuzan).
Richard Morrill, University of Washington, receives the first NSF research grant known to be awarded to a geographer in 1960; he uses the grant to investigate relationships between urbanization and migration in Sweden (Morrill). During the 1970s, Human Geography and Regional Science emerges as a separate program through the efforts of Howard Hines, director of the Economics program, who handled geography and regional science research proposals until then (Garrison). Renamed the Geography and Regional Science program in 1977, its mission remains unchanged—to fund “research on the geographic distributions and interactions of human, physical, and biotic systems on the Earth’s surface” (NSF Internet site).
[www.nsf.gov; Vannevar Bush. Science: the Endless Frontier; Report to the President on a Program for Postwar Scientific Research. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1945; James L. Penick. ed. The Politics of American Science: 1939 to the Present. Revised edition. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1972; Daniel Kevles. The National Science Foundation and the Debate over Postwar Research Policy, 1942-45. Isis 68 (1977): 5-26; David Noble. Science for Sale. Thought and Action: the NEA Higher Education Journal 16 (Fall 1984): 15-28; George T. Mazuzan. The National Science Foundation: a Brief History. General Publication No. NSF8816. Washington: Office of Legislative Affairs, National Science Foundation, 1994; Committee on the Social Sciences in the National Science Foundation, National Research Council. Social and Behavioral Science Programs in the National Science Foundation. Washington: National Academy of Sciences, 1976; Richard Morrill. Pausing for Breath. In Peter Gould and Forrest R. Pitts. eds. Geographical Voices: Fourteen Autobiographical Essays. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2002, p. 219; William L Garrison. Lessons from the Design of a Life. In Peter Gould and Forrest R. Pitts. eds. Geographical Voices: Fourteen Autobiographical Essays. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2002, p. 117.]
The Geographic Cycle in Periglacial Regions as it is Related to Climatic Geomorphology, an article by Louis C. Peltier (1916-2003) appears in the Annals of the Association of American Geographers in 1950. In this paper, Peltier develops the concept of morphogenetic regions in geomorphology by linking climate to intensity of weathering and erosional processes. Peltier, one of William Morris Davis' last students, describes the cycle of erosion in a periglacial environment, and recognizes that climate change would occur too frequently to allow a full Davisian cycle to run its course in periglacial regions.
[Louis C. Peltier. The Geographic Cycle in Periglacial Regions as it is Related to Climatic Geomorphology. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 40 (September 1950): 214-236.]
University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri establishes a Department of Geography in 1950 and its graduate program in geography the same year. The university’s Geographic Resources Center is part of the Department of Geography. [www.missouri.edu]
The scholarly journal Landscape, published and edited by John Brinkerhoff Jackson (1909-1966), begins publication. Its publication is suspended in 1971, but resumes in 1974 and continues until ceasing publication with Volume 32 (1993-94).
Seventeenth International Geographical Congress, the second to be convened in the United States, meets August 8-15 in Washington, D.C. The first International Geographical Congress to be convened in the United States took place in 1904. (see International Geographical Congress entry at 1904)
[National Committee of the International Geographical Union. Proceedings [of the Eighth General Assembly and Seventeenth International Congress. Washington: U.S. National Committee of the International Geographical Union, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, n.d.; Charles W. Buffum. ed. Catalog of National Exhibits, Seventeenth International Geographical Congress. Washington: Library of Congress, 1952; John H. Thompson and Edward C. Higbee. New England Excursion Guidebook. Publication No. 1. Washington: Rand McNally for the U.S. National Committee for the International Geographical Union, 1952; Harold M. Mayer and Allen K. Philbrick. Industrial Cities Excursion Guidebook. Publication No. 2. Washington: Rand McNally for the U.S. National Committee for the International Geographical Union, 1952; Eugene Mather and J. Fraser Hart. Southeastern Excursion Guidebook. Publication No. 3. Washington: Rand McNally for the U.S. National Committee for the International Geographical Union, 1952; William E. Powers and Richard F. Logan. Transcontinental Excursion Guidebook. Publication No. 4. Washington: Rand McNally for the U.S. National Committee for the International Geographical Union, 1952; Erwin Raisz. Map of the Landforms of the United States: Special Edition Prepared for the Excursions of the International Geographical Congress. Publication No. 5. Washington: Rand McNally for the U.S. National Committee for the International Geographical Union, 1952; John K. Wright. ed. Report of the Commission on the International Map of the World, 1:1,000,000. Washington: International Geographical Union, 1952.]
Dynamic Basis of Geomorphology, the first of a series of landmark research papers by Arthur N. Strahler (1918-2003), geomorphologist at Columbia University, appears in 1952. A second key paper, Quantitative Analysis of Watershed Geomorphology, appears in 1957. These papers, along with others published by Strahler during the 1950s, define geomorphology for the first time as a quantitative and systematic approach to the scientific explanation of geomorphologic processes rather than a qualitative description of the evolution of landforms.
[Arthur N. Strahler. Dynamic Basis of Geomorphology. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 63 (1952): 923-938; Arthur N. Strahler. Quantitative Analysis of Watershed Geomorphology. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 38 (1957): 913-920.]
American Geography: Inventory and Prospect, edited by Preston James and Clarence Jones, provides a "progress report on the objectives and procedures of geographic research [in the United States]" (vii) at the fiftieth anniversary of the Association of American Geographers. Preparation of the volume is initiated by the Committee on Training and Standards in the Geographic Profession of the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences in 1944, and receives financial support from the National Research Council, Social Science Research Council, and the Office of Naval Research. A collaboration of dozens of contributors, the volume provides a 600-page statement, divided into 26 thematic chapters, of the status of American geography during the immediate post-Second World War period.
[Preston E. James and Clarence F. Jones. eds. American Geography: Inventory and Prospect. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press for the Association of American Geographers, 1954.]
Regional Science Association International is established as the Regional Science Association. Its name changes to Regional Science Association International in 1990 to reflect its evolution into an international organization that encompasses three regional organizations--North America Regional Science Association, Europe Regional Science Association, and Pacific Regional Science Association.
Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth, a landmark publication in geography's human-environment tradition edited by William L. Thomas, is published in 1956. It reports the results of an international symposium held in 1955 in Princeton, New Jersey, to consider previous, current, and prospective physical and cultural alterations by humans of Earth as humankind's habitat. The symposium, sponsored by the Wenner-Gren Foundation and chaired by Carl O. Sauer, Marston Bates, and Lewis Mumford, brought together 76 participants from 10 countries to discuss a set of 52 papers that had been prepared and distributed to participants in advance of the symposium. Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth includes an introduction by Thomas, the 52 reports with discussion, and summarizing remarks by Sauer, Bates, and Mumford. The National Science Foundation provides financial support for publication of Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth, which sells more than 18,000 copies in its 1,193-page single-volume hardback edition. A two-volume paperback edition is issued in 1972, which sells 24,000 copies over the next twenty years. The two-volume edition remains in print.
A follow-on symposium to Wenner-Gren's international symposium, titled Man, Time, and Space in Southern California, is coordinated by William L. Thomas, and held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers in Santa Monica in 1958. It provides a detailed examination of the role of humans in modifying the environment of Southern California.
[William L. Thomas, Jr. ed. Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956, and 2 vols., 1972); William L. Thomas, Jr. ed. Man, Time, and Space in Southern California: a Symposium. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 49 (supplement, part 2, September 1959): 1-120.]
Paul A. Siple (1908-1968), expert on Antarctica and employee of the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps, is portrayed on the cover of Time Magazine (Isaiah Bowman was the first geographer to appear on the magazine's cover in 1936). The cover-story article reviews Siple's career and the exploration of Antarctica through Operation Deep Freeze, the research project he heads as part of the International Geophysical Year-IGY (1956-58). Siple, who directs scientific research at the South Pole Station on behalf of the United States National Committee for the International Geophysical Year, participates in seven expeditions to and lives in Antarctica more than six years during a distinguished career over thirty years. He is honored by the American Geographical Society with the David Livingstone Centenary Medal and by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names with the naming of Mt. Siple (3110 m.), a volcano that forms an island adjacent to Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica.
[Time Magazine 68 (December 31, 1956): cover and 5, 12-17; Paul A. Siple. 90° South: the Story of the American South Pole Conquest. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1959.]
Location and Space Economy, the landmark publication by Walter Isard, appears in 1956. It reviews the development, through 1947, of a general economic location theory; explores basic spatial aspects of transportation, distance, scale, and agglomeration within economies; provides an account of the spatial equilibrium of the firm, the spatial structure of markets, and agricultural land rent theory; and concludes with a general synthesis. Some four decades later, Morrill describes the work’s “breathtaking originality, a bringing together of the state of theory of spatial behavior and structure, sweeping and revolutionary… a work of masterful and provocative insights, of tantalizing graphics and challenges for research.”
Location and Space Economy is shortly followed by the better known and more widely used textbook, Methods of Regional Analysis, in 1960. This volume, prepared by Isard and a team of contributors, provides a comprehensive how-to compendium of regional analytic techniques – projecting resident populations, estimating migration and interregional monetary flows, locating industries, developing input-output models and gravity, potential, and spatial interaction models. A subsequent, Methods of Interregional and Regional Analysis, updates and expands ‘Methods‘ to account for developments through the 1990s, including techniques for the integration of sectoral (industrial) and spatial interdependencies in system models.
[Walter Isard. Location and Space Economy: a General Theory Relating to Industrial Location, Market Areas, Land Use, Trade, and Urban Structure. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 1956; Subsequent commentary by Richard Morrill. Textbooks that Moved Generations: Location and Space Economy. Progress in Human Geography 26 (February 2002): 113-115; Walter Isard et al. Methods of Regional Analysis: an Introduction to Regional Science. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 1960; Walter Isard et al. Methods of Interregional and Regional Analysis. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1998.]
University of Montana in Missoula, Montana establishes a Department of Geography in 1956 and its graduate program in geography in 1965. [www.umt.edu]
University of Nevada in Reno, Nevada establishes a Department of Geography in 1957 and its graduate program in geography in 1993. [www.unr.edu]
Geography as a Fundamental Research Discipline, by Edward A. Ackerman (1911-1973), provides an early formulation of the spatial science paradigm that will blossom within university geography during the 1960s. In assessing the "position of geography as a scientific discipline and its future as a fundamental research tool, [it concludes that] there is only one fundamental approach in geography, and that approach may be applied to a variety of subject matter. It is the differentiation of the content of space on the earth's surface and the analysis of space relations within the same universe" (Ackerman 1958, 7 & 8).
[Edward A. Ackerman. Geography as a Fundamental Research Discipline. Research Paper No. 39. Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1958; Edward A. Ackerman. Where is a Research Frontier? Presidential address to the Association of American Geographers. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 53 (1963): 429-440.]
The scholarly journal The Iowa Geographer, an annual publication of the Iowa Council for Geographic Education and the Department of Geography, University of Northern Iowa, begins publication. Its name changes to Geographical Perspectives with volume 33 (1974). Its publication continues through volume 64 (1993).
Journal of Regional Science begins publication. Its publication continues to the present.
Discussion Papers, a series of scholarly but non-reviewed exploratory papers, is established in the Department of Geography at the University of Washington in Seattle in 1958. The Discussion Paper series issues over 40 papers by 1961.
In the pre-photocopy pre-Internet era of the 1950s and early 1960s, such informally produced, sometimes mimeographed working paper series are sponsored by numerous academic geography departments. They prove highly effective in disseminating and influencing the development and promotion of new ideas. This informal form of publication continues to appear regularly into the 1970s, but then diminishes as an increasing number of formal, refereed, scholarly journals are published, and the means of communications between individual researchers is enhanced dramatically with the eventual emergence of the Internet.
[Bibliography and Review of Geography Department Discussion Papers, Occasional Papers, and Monographs. Vols. 1-4 (1974-1980). Waterloo, Ontario [Canada]: Department of Geography, Wilfrid Laurier University.]
Readings in Urban Geography, edited by Harold Mayer and Clyde Kohn, is one of numerous compilations of papers that appear as the rapidly evolving social sciences enter the 1960s. The reader's 18 section introductions and 54 articles provide the first "volume of articles and excerpts...designed to facilitate a comprehension of the character and scope of the field of urban geography, both as a scientific discipline and as a body of applied knowledge...[in lieu of] no systematic presentation of these concepts and hypotheses for the student of geography and others concerned with urban affairs" (1).
[Harold M. Mayer and Clyde F. Kohn. eds. Readings in Urban Geography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959.]
International Cartographic Association (ICA) is founded in Bern, Switzerland, in 1959. Its mission is to promote the discipline and profession of cartography in its international context through research, publication, discussion, education, and the transfer of new cartographic technology and knowledge.
Several geographers-cartographers from the United States are honored by the International Cartographic Association during the ensuing decades. The Carl Mannerfelt Gold Medal is awarded Arthur H. Robinson, University of Wisconsin (1980) and Joel L. Morrison, Ohio State University (2001). The title Honorary Fellowship is granted Joel L. Morrison, U.S. Bureau of the Census (1991), Richard F. Dahlberg, Northern Illinois University (1997), and Judy M. Olson, Michigan State University (2001).
The scholarly journal Soviet Geography: Review and Translation begins publication with Vol. 1 (January and February 1960) in February 1960. Its publication is initially sponsored by the American Geographical Society. The name of the journal changes to Soviet Geography beginning with Vol. 25 (January 1984) to reflect the journal’s publication of increasing numbers of original Western research papers on the Soviet Union. With the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the journal’s name changes to Post-Soviet Geography Vol. 33 (January 1992), and with the inclusion of papers on regional economics, to Post-Soviet Geography and Economics Vol. 37 (January 1996). The journal continues publication to the present with the title Eurasian Geography and Economics, adopted with Vol. 43 (March 2002), to reflect an expanded regional focus that includes the former Soviet Union, Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and China.
The first edition of International List of Geographical Serials, the landmark compilation of geography journals by Chauncy D. Harris, University of Chicago, and Jerome D. Fellmann, University of Illinois, appears in 1960. The volume includes extensive bibliographic information on popular and scholarly, current and historic (no longer published) journals, as well as information on sources, library holdings, and inventories by language and writing system. By its third edition, published in 1980, it includes 3,445 entries, just over a thousand of which continue to be issued as of the publication date.
[Chauncy D. Harris and Jerome D. Fellmann. International List of Geographical Serials. Research Paper No. 63. Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1960; Chauncy D. Harris and Jerome D. Fellmann. International List of Geographical Serials. 3rd edition. Research Paper No. 193. Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1980.]
The California Geographer, a scholarly journal issued annually, begins publication in 1960. It is sponsored by the California Council for Geographic Education and begins with volume 1 (1960). Its publication is preceded by the Bulletin, produced by the California Council of Geography Teachers, volumes 1 (1953) through 7 (1960). The California Geographical Society subsequently assumes responsibility for publication of The California Geographer, which continues to the present.
Society for the History of Discoveries is established to stimulate interest in teaching, research, and publishing the history of geographical exploration of Earth's land and sea surfaces from earliest times to the present. Its publication program includes the scholarly journal, Terrae Incognitae, published annually since 1969, and volumes in the Studies in the History of Discoveries series, published jointly with the Newberry Library of Chicago.
"Don't know much about geography," sings the gospel-soul-rhythm & blues singer-songwriter Sam Cooke in the hit song Wonderful World, written by Cooke, Herb Alpert, and Lou Adler. The same song also becomes a hit for Herman's Hermits five years later. The apparent irrelevance of geography to the song's lovesick teenager is not unique, as he knows little about any of his other school subjects-history, biology, science, French, trigonometry, algebra. He is trying to be an A student, however, hoping that by doing so, he will win his truelove's heart.
Megalopolis: the Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States, by Jean Gottmann (1915-1994), introduces the term 'megalopolis' to apply to the "almost continuous stretch of urban and suburban areas [extending] from southern New Hampshire to northern Virginia and from the Atlantic shore to the Appalachian foothills [that the processes of urbanization have endowed] "with unique ways of life and land use, and a kind of supremacy, in politics, in economics, and possibly even in cultural activities, seldom before attained by an area of this size [within the United States or indeed the world]" (Gottmann 1961, 3). A landmark in geography's regional research tradition, Megalopolis emphasizes the importance of the spatial restructuring of interactions in this region of contemporary American society, and draws attention to the growing significance of service-sector jobs that are based on information-based transactions in support of decision-making in business and government, of particular importance in this region. Megalopolis alters the urban research agenda in numerous social science research disciplines and sets the stage for decades of investigations into the causes and consequences of what will later come to be termed 'global cities.'
[Jean Gottmann. Megalopolis: the Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund, 1961; Howard J. Nelson. Megalopolis and New York Metropolitan Region: New Studies of the Urbanized Eastern Seaboard. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 52 (September 1962): 307-317; Wolf Von Eckardt. The Challenge of Megalopolis: a Graphic Presentation of the Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States. New York: Macmillan for the Twentieth Century Fund, 1964; Jean Gottmann. Megalopolitan Systems Around the World. Ekistics 243 (February 1976): 109-113; Jean Gottmann. Megalopolis Revisited: 25 Years Later. Monograph No. 6. College Park, MD: University of Maryland Institute for Urban Studies, 1987; Jean Gottmann. Since Megalopolis: the Urban Writings of Jean Gottmann, edited by Jean Gottmann and Ropert A. Harper. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990.]
Southeastern Geographer, a scholarly journal of the Southeastern Division of the Association of American Geographers (SEDAAG), begins publication. Its publication continues to the present.
[James O. Wheeler. On the History of Publications of the Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers & Notable First-Time Occurrences in the History of the Southeastern Geographer, 1961-2003 & Authorship of Articles Published in the Southeastern Geographer, 1961-1999. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 122-137 & 138-150 & 402-405; Jodie Traylor Guy. The Southeastern Geographer: a Regional Journal? In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 377-244.]
University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, New Mexico establishes a Department of Geography in 1961 and its graduate program in geography in 1970. [www.unm.edu]
Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania establishes a Department of Geography and Urban Studies in 1961 and its graduate program in geography in 1969. [www.temple.edu]
Readings in Cultural Geography is a landmark volume of international writings on aspects of cultural geography edited, translated, and introduced by Philip L. Wagner and Marvin W. Mikesell. The volume's 34 writings are grouped into four topical sections, each introduced by the editors-Orientation, Cultural Areas and Distributions, Cultural Origins and Dispersals, and Landscape and Ecology. It is one of numerous compilations of papers that appear as the rapidly evolving social sciences enter the 1960s. Influential scholarly research pieces in cultural geography dating into the 1990s are included in the volume, Re-Reading Cultural Geography, edited by Foote et al.
[Philip L. Wagner and Marvin W. Mikesell. eds. Readings in Cultural Geography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962; Fay Gale. Textbooks that Moved Generations: Readings in Cultural Geography. Progress in Human Geography 27 (April 2003): 233-236; Kenneth E. Foote et al. ed. Re-Reading Cultural Geography. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1994.]
The Van Nostrand Searchlight series of books debuts in 1962. Produced by the Van Nostrand Co. of Princeton, New Jersey and later the Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. of New York City, the Searchlight series grows to about 40 original paperback editions, each running about 130 pages and is edited by geographers G. Etzel Pearcy (1905-1980), U.S. Department of State, and George W. Hoffman (1914-1990), University of Texas. In the words of the editors, the series focuses on “specific regions or topics of current international interest. In each volume, a distinguished scholar illuminates a given segment of the globe or an activity which, because of politico-geographic implications, plays or promises to play an unusual role in the international scene. Concise narrative – supported by striking maps specially drawn for the series – provides a coherent, coordinated background or current problems.” The series includes a set of regional monographs for the United States and an international series of regional and topical monographs.
United States series: The Northeastern United States, by Lewis M. Alexander, 1976 (1967); The North Central United States, by Wallace E. Akin, 1968; The South (2nd edition), by John Fraser Hart, 1976 (The Southeastern United States, 1967); The Southwestern United States, by John W. Morris, 1970; The Northwestern United States, by Charles W. Booth, 1971; California, the Last Frontier, by Robert Durrenberger, 1969; The United States and World Resources, by Donald J. Patton, 1968; Canada in the American Community, by Norman L. Nicholson, 1963.
International series: Divided Germany and Berlin, by Norman J. G. Pounds, 1962; The Russo-Chinese Borderlands: Zone of Peaceful Contact or Potential Conflict?, by W. A. Douglas Jackson, 1968 (1962); Spain in the World, by Saxton E. Bradford, 1962; Pacific Island Bastions of the United States, by Herold J. Weins, 1962; The Common Market: the European Community in Action, by J. Warren Nystrom and George W. Hoffman/Peter Malof, 1976 (1962); Central America: Land of Lords and Lizards, by Thorsten V. Kalijarvi, 1962; Puerto Rico: Ally for Progress, by Earl Parker Hanson, 1962; Space: Frontier Unlimited, by Harold Leland Goodwin, 1962; Environment and Policies in West Africa, by R. J. Harrison Church, 1976 (1963); Indonesia: the Crisis of the Millstones, by Benjamin H. Higgins and Jean Higgins, 1963; Japan: Industrial Power of Asia, by Robert B. Hall, Jr., 1963; The Lower Mekong: Challenge to Cooperation in Southeast Asia, by C. Hart Schaaf and Russell H. Fifield, 1963; The Himalayan Kingdoms: Bhutan, Sikkim, and Nepal, by Pradyumma P. Karen and William M. Jenkins, Jr., 1963; Pakistan: Emerging Democracy, by Robert D. Campbell, 1963; The Soviet Union, by E. Gordon East, 1963; The Changing Map of Africa, by Robert D. Hodgson and Elvyn A. Stoneman, 1968 (1963); The Global Sea, by Harris B. Stewart, Jr., 1963; Transportation and Politics, by Roy I. Wolfe, 1963; The Balkans in Transition, by George W. Hoffman, 1963; A New Soviet Heartland?, by David J. M. Hooson, 1964; Poland Between East and West, by Norman J. G. Pounds, 1964; The Philippines: Nation of Islands, by Alden Cutshall, 1964; India: the Search for Unity, Democracy, and Progress, by Walter C. Neale, 1965; Norden: Crossroads of Destiny, by Vincent H. Malmström, 1965; The West Indian Scene, by G. Etzel Pearcy, 1965; The Alliance for Progress: Key to Latin America’s Development, by J. Warren Nystrom and Nathan A. Haverstock, 1966; Argentina: the Divided Land, by Thomas F. McGann, 1966; Dilemmas Down Under: Australia and the Southwest Pacific, by A. James Rose, 1966; Military Geography, by Louis C. Peltier and G. Etzel Pearcy, 1966; Mexico: Land of Sunshine and Shadow, by Donald D. Brand, 1966; The Northern Tier: Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey, by Rouhollah K. Ramazani, 1966; China: Ageless Land and Countless People, by Chiao-min Hsieh, 1967; China: Emerging World Power, by Viktor Porfirievich Petrov, 1967; Brazil: a Giant Stirs, by Richard P. Momsen, 1968; Italy, by George Kish, 1969; France in the Modern World, by Niles M. Hansen, 1969; Venezuela: Search for Middle Ground, by Raymond E. Crist and Edward P. Leahy, 1969; Geography, Marketing, and Urban Growth, by Donald F. Mulvihill and Ruth Cope Mulvihill, 1970; COMECON: Challenge to the West, by Roy E. H. Mellor, 1971.
Proceedings of the IGU Symposium in Urban Geography, edited by Knut Norborg, is published in 1962. It includes papers and discussions presented at the 1960 Symposium in Urban Geography, convened by the Department of Geography, University of Lund (Sweden) in conjunction with meetings of the 19th International Geographical Congress in Stockholm. Many of the symposium's presentations presage the 'theoretical turn' that will occur in research geography during the 1960s. The published papers represent the four major topics addressed at the conference-analytic/theoretical approaches, individual settlements within settlement systems/regions, spatial structure of settlements, and core/central business districts of settlements.
[Knut Norborg. ed. Proceedings of the I[nternational] G[eographical] U[nion] Symposium in Urban Geography. Lund Studies in Geography, Ser. B. Human Geography No. 34. Lund, Sweden: C.W.K. Gleerup Publishers for Department of Geography, University of Lund, 1962.]
State University of New York in Buffalo, New York establishes a Department of Geography in 1962. [www.buffalo.edu]
The innovative Discussion Papers of the Michigan Inter-University Community of Mathematical Geographers is established. Twelve issues appear in the series, popularly known as the MICMOG discussion papers, from 1 (July 1963) to 12 (June 1968).
[The series is reprinted as: John D. Nysteun. ed. Michigan Interuniversity Community of Mathematical Geographers: Papers. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute of Mathematical Geography, 1986.]
The University of California, Santa Barbara, in Santa Barbara, California establishes a Geography Program in the College of Arts and Letters under Berl Golomb, in 1963. Two additional full-time instructors are added the following year, and a geography major is created and first B.A. in geography awarded in 1966. The offering of classes in geography at the University of California, Santa Barbara, actually dates from 1944 when the Santa Barbara State College first became a campus of the University of California.
By the early 1970s, the faculty in geography offers over 20 courses, and a formal Department of Geography is established in 1974, with David Simonett as its first chair. Rapid growth occurs during the 1970s, with the Remote Sensing Research Unit established and first M.A. degree awarded. The doctoral program in geography is established in 1980 and the first Ph.D. is awarded in 1982. Continued programmatic growth includes creation of the National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA), in conjunction with faculty at the University of Maine and the State University of New York (SUNY), Buffalo, and funding from the National Science Foundation; reorganization of the Computer Systems Laboratory/Center for Remote Sensing and Environmental Optics (CSL/CRSEO), which in 1995 is renamed Institute for Computational Earth System Science (ICESS); and creation of Research Unit on Spatial Cognition and Choice (RUSCC), all in 1988.
During the 1990s, the department creates a joint-Ph.D. program with San Diego State University and opens the Descartes Lab for undergraduate education in Geographic Information Sciences (GIS). The first years of the new century find the Department of Geography with 23 faculty and 23 staff; nearly 200 undergraduates and 100 graduate students; and the largest amount of extra-mural research funds of any academic department at University of California, Santa Barbara.
California State University, Northridge, in the Northridge section of the city of Los Angeles, California, establishes a Department of Geography in 1963. When the university opened as San Fernando Valley State College in 1956, Robert Durrenburger was the only full-time faculty member in geography. He was joined by Robert Lamb the following year.
The university changes its name to California State University, Northridge, in 1971, and by 1972, the Department of Geography includes 33 faculty members, making it one of the largest academic geography departments in the United States. After the 1970s geography retains about 20 faculty positions.
Climatology is a departmental strength throughout the department’s history. Historical geography was particularly strong during the late 1960s and 1970s. More recently the department experiences vigorous expansion of its expertise in Geographic Information Sciences (GIS). The department is well-known for maps and atlases addressing human geography topics that are produced by its faculty and students. While embracing the latest computer technologies for instruction, research, and cartographic production, field experiences continue to play vital roles in the curriculum. The department’s programs, which focus on urban, environment, regional and international studies, and cartography and geographic information sciences, lead to B.A. and M.A. degrees and an undergraduate certificate in GIS.
University of South Carolina in Columbia, South Carolina establishes a Department of Geography in 1963 and its graduate program in geography the same year.
[www.sc.edu; Allen D. Bushong. Two Centuries of Geography at the University of South Carolina. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 173-187.]
The Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA) is established as a non-profit association of professionals using spatial information technology in the fields of city and regional planning, public works, environment, emergency services, utilities, and local, state, and regional governments. Publication of the association’s Journal of URISA begins in 1989.
Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology, the landmark book by Luna B. Leopold, M. Gordon Wolman, and John P. Miller is published in 1964. This benchmark book is recognized as the first systematic analysis of rivers that links hydrology and geomorphology, and that synthesizes years of empirical research by U.S. Geological Survey scientists.
[Luna B. Leopold, M. Gordon Wolman, and John P. Miller. Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology. San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman, 1964, and New York: Dover Publications, 1995.]
Explorer’s Hall in the National Geographic Society’s new headquarters building in Washington, D.C. is created as the nation’s first permanent geography museum in 1964. One of Washington’s major attractions for visitors, its permanent and regularly changing exhibits explore the breadth of human geography, physical geography, and human-environment themes. Many of the temporary exhibits displayed here also travel to other museums.
The University of Akron in Akron, Ohio establishes a Department of Geography and Geology under the leadership of Allen G. Noble in its Buchtel College of Arts and Sciences in 1964. Geography previously had been offered only in the College of Education, where classes were taught by Edward Jones, the first geographer to become a member of the university faculty. Geography adds a graduate program leading to the master’s degree in 1967. The geology program is separated from the Department of Geography and Geology to create its own department in 1968. When a strong urban and regional planning component is incorporated into the geography program in 1991, the department becomes the Department of Geography and Planning. The department has awarded over 500 undergraduate and graduate degrees since its founding. Departmental programs currently lead to three different bachelor's degrees and three different master's degrees—M.A. (Geography), M.S (Geography), M.A. (Geography/Urban Planning).
The scholarly journal Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing begins publication. Its publication continues to the present.
The Science of Geography, prepared by a committee of geographers for the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, is the first of three reports issued over the next three decades addressing the role of fundamental scientific research in geography. It assesses the potential contributions of geography to science and to society and provides a strategy for achieving those ends. Prepared in a period of active scientific competition between the United States and the Soviet Union (the Russian space satellite Sputnik was launched in 1957), the committee attempts to build upon contemporary discussions of geography's contributions to fundamental scientific research.
The second report prepared by the National Research Council, issued at the end of the 1960s, addresses geography's role within the behavioral and social sciences and appears jointly with reports on economics, sociology, political science, anthropology, and history.
The National Research Council's third report, prepared during the mid-1990s, again addresses geography's contributions to pure and applied scientific understanding and to societal decision-making processes.
[Edward A. Ackerman et al. The Science of Geography: Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Geography of the Earth Sciences Division. NRC Publication 1277. Washington: National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, 1965; Edward J. Taaffe. ed. Geography: Report of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1969, and Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey Committee, National Academy of Sciences and Committee on Problems and Policy, Social Science Research Council. The Behavioral and Social Sciences: Outlook and Needs. Washington: National Academy of Sciences, 1969; Thomas J. Wilbanks et al. Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. Washington: National Academy Press, 1997.]
Geography in Undergraduate Liberal Education, a report of the Geography in Liberal Education Project of the Association of American Geographers, discusses the important contribution geography instruction makes in the liberal arts college curriculum. The volume addresses the importance of both human and physical geography, the importance of understanding maps, and the geographic study of foreign areas in a liberal education. Gilbert White summarizes the educational outcome expected from including geography in the liberal arts curriculums of American colleges-"A liberally educated person should know sufficient about the processes which shape the spatial distribution of selected landscape features [landforms, natural vegetation, cultivated land, urban settlement, etc.] so that with a minimum memorization of basic facts and anomalous relationships he can state with a fair degree of accuracy the complex landscape features he would expect to find on any given part of the earth's surface, expressly noting the amount of diversity present at any given scale, and the changes he would expect to result from any given shift in conditions affecting the processes" (White et al. 1965, 16). Geography in Undergraduate Liberal Education triggers creation of the Commission on College Geography (CCG) of the Association of American Geographers and provides the first publication in a series that will include 40 additional reports on aspects of geography in the college curriculum appearing between 1965 and 1972.
[Gilbert F. White, Chauncy D. Harris, Arthur H. Robinson, M Gordon Wolman, and Arch C. Gerlach. Geography in Undergraduate Liberal Education. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1965; Homer Aschmann. Geography in the Liberal Arts College. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 52 (September 1962): 284-292.]
Commission on College Geography (CCG) is established by the Association of American Geographers to strengthen instruction in college geography in 1965. During the mid-1960s, the cohort of youth born during the post-World War II baby boom fills American colleges and produces a dramatically increased demand for college geography courses. The Commission on College Geography, with financial support from the U.S. Department of Education, considers curriculum content and the development of materials devoted to substantive and methodological topics through discussion at summer institutes. It then issues numerous volumes in three publication series - General Series, Resource Paper Series, and Technical Paper Series. It functions into the mid-1970s. The commission is reconstituted as Commission on College Geography II (CCGII) by the Association of American Geographers in 1991 to address college-level geography academic programs in light of education goals during the 1990s.
[Commission on College Geography. Geography in Undergraduate Liberal Education. General Series No. 1. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1965; A Basic Geographical Library: a Selected and Annotated Book List for American Colleges. General Series No. 2. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1966; Geographic Manpower: a Report on Manpower in American Geography. General Series No. 3. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1966; New Approaches in Introductory College Geography Courses. General Series No. 4. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1967; Introductory Geography: Viewpoints and Themes. General Series No. 5. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1967; Undergraduate Major Programs in American Geography. General Series No. 6. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1968; A Survey Course: the Energy and Mass Budget at the Surface of the Earth. General Series No. 7. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1968; A Systems Analytic Approach to Economic Geography. General Series No. 8. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1968; A Geographical Bibliography for American College Libraries. General Series No. 9. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1970; Geography in the Two-Year Colleges. General Series No. 10. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1970; Manpower in Geography: an Updated Report. General Series No. 11. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1972; Planning College Geography: Facilities’ Guidelines for Space and Equipment. General Series No. 12. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1973; Perspectives on Environment: Essays Requested by the Panel on Environmental Education, Commission on College Geography. General Series No. 13. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1974.]
Southwest Texas State University in San Marcos, Texas establishes a Department of Geography in 1965 and its graduate program in geography in 1983. [www.swt.edu]
University of Vermont in Burlington, Vermont establishes a Department of Geography in 1965 and a graduate program in geography in 1970. [www.uvm.edu]
Locational Analysis in Human Geography, by Peter Haggett of England's University of Cambridge, provides the initial synthesis of the analytic spatial-science research paradigm in human geography, which blossoms rapidly in the 1960s. Other landmark volumes in this tradition rapidly follow. A variety of terms are employed to label this emerging orientation to geographic research-quantitative, spatial, theoretical, model building, logical positivist, and scientific revolution.
[Peter Haggett. Locational Analysis in Human Geography. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1966; Subsequent commentary by Richard Morrill, Maurice Yeates, and Peter Haggett. Classics in Human Geography Revisited: Locational Analysis in Human Geography. Progress in Human Geography 15 (September 1991): 300-302; William Bunge. Theoretical Geography. Lund Studies in Geography, Ser. C, No.1. Lund, Sweden: C.W.K. Gleerup, 1966; Richard J. Chorley and Peter Haggett. eds. Models in Geography. London: Methuen, 1967; Brian J. L. Berry and Duane F. Marble. eds. Spatial Analysis: a Reader in Statistical Geography. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1968; David Harvey. Explanation in Geography. London: Edward Arnold, 1969; William Bunge. Perspective on Theoretical Geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 69 (March 1979): 169-174.]
The American City: an Urban Geography, by Raymond E. Murphy, is the first textbook written by an American geographer explicitly for college courses in urban geography. Its appearance is followed in the 1970s by the first advanced urban geography college textbook, Geographic Perspectives on Urban Systems, by Brian Berry and Frank Horton.
[Raymond E. Murphy. The American City: An Urban Geography. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966; 2nd edition., 1974; Brian J. L. Berry and Frank E. Horton. Geographic Perspectives on Urban Systems with Integrated Readings. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970.]
A Basic Geographical Library lists and provides commentary on 1,300 publications, including books and serials, for inclusion in a basic collection of geography publications for American college libraries. It is one of many projects sponsored by the Commission on College Geography (CCG) of the Association of American Geographers. The 'basic library' is revised and expanded to include 1,800 items in 1970, and further revised and expanded to include nearly 3,000 items in 1985. An indication of some of the changes that have occurred in the basic set of geography reference works available to American libraries during the twentieth century is provided by comparing these lists with the one provided by the U.S. Office of Education for the nation's emerging public libraries in 1876.
[Martha Church, Robert E. Huke, and Wilbur Zelinsky. A Basic Geographical Library: a Selected and Annotated Book List for American Colleges. Commission on College Geography Publication No. 2. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1966; Gordon R. Lewthwaite, Edward T. Price, Jr., and Harold A. Winters. A Geographical Bibliography for American College Libraries. Commission on College Geography Publication No. 9. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1970; Chauncy D. Harris, Salvatore J. Natoli, Richard W. Stevenson, Harold A. Winters, and Wilbur Zelinsky. A Geographical Bibliography for American Libraries. Washington: Association of American Geographers and National Geographic Society, 1985; U.S. Office of Education. Public Libraries in the United States of America: Their History, Condition, and Management. 2 vols. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1876, Pp. 699-700, and in electronic version at Making of America, moa.umdl.umich.edu]
South Dakota State University (SDSU) in Brookings, South Dakota establishes a Department of Geography in 1966. Geography was one of the seven initial subjects offered as a general science when the South Dakota State University was founded in 1881, and geography courses were offered during the intervening years, but it is not until the 1966-67 academic year when Edward P. Hogan joined the faculty that the Department of Geography is established in Scobey Hall and an undergraduate major offered. A graduate geography program leading to a M.S. degree is initiated in 1974. Geography faculty members join with history colleagues to form the Department of History and Geography in 1968, and then revert to an independent Department of Geography once again in 1973 with Professor Hogan as its head. The Department of Geography offers the B.A., B.S., and M.S. degrees, with undergraduate majors in teaching, environmental management, urban and regional planning, cultural geography, geographic techniques, and Geographic Information Sciences.
SDSU’s Department of Geography works hard to introduce geography to audiences in South Dakota beyond its own campus. Charles F. “Fritz” Gritzner, with help from Edward P. Hogan, succeeds in making South Dakota the first state to restore geography as a statewide requirement for graduation from high school in 1984. And, perhaps the most distinctive aspect of the SDSU geography program is its annual South Dakota State Geography Convention, which is student initiated and directed, and brings together top geographers from across the United States and Canada for two days of sharing ideas and trends in geography.
University of Maryland Baltimore County creates a Department of Geography in 1966, the year the Baltimore County campus of the University of Maryland opens. The first courses in geography are offered during the spring term in the Division of Social Sciences, with Kingsley E. Haynes as the first instructor. In autumn term 1968, the department offers a full range of courses leading to the B.A. and B.S. degrees in geography. The department’s current name-Geography and Environmental Systems-emphasizes its instructional and research focus on interactions between environmental and human systems.
Appalachian State University in Boone, North Carolina establishes a Department of Geography and Planning in 1966. [www.appstate.edu]
University of Delaware in Newark, Delaware establishes a Department of Geography in 1966 and a graduate program in geography in 1971. [www.udel.edu]
University of Wyoming in Laramie, Wyoming establishes a Department of Geography in 1966 and its graduate program the same year. [www.uwyo.edu]
Geography of Market Centers and Retail Distribution, the landmark book by Brian J. L. Berry, then at the University of Chicago, appears in 1967 as a volume in the Foundations of Economic Geography Series published by Prentice-Hall. The book introduces concepts of markets and central places; reviews examples of empirical research studies; develops central place theory in both classical and modern forms; discusses empirical findings from complex modern economies outside the United States and from historical research of systems developing through time; and carries theory into the applications of marketing research and urban planning. It sells more than 37,000 copies(?) and serves to introduce new economic geography research in the ‘quantitative revolution’ tradition to both geographers and to social science researchers in urban studies, planning and marketing. Revisiting the book 25 years later, Davies writes that it – “provided the first convincing quantitative demonstration that the structure of service centers systematically varied across space. Yet this work was important in conceptual terms. By linking his results with central place theory and extending them to the literature on periodic marketing the discussion transcended empirical and contemporary concerns – a rare combination at the time.”
[Brian J. L. Berry. Geography of Market Centers and Retail Distribution. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967, plus editions in Japanese (1970), French (1971), and Spanish (1972) and revised edition, Market Centers and Retail Location: Theory and Applications, by Brian J. L. Berry, John B. Parr, Bart J. Epstein, Avijit Ghosh, and Robert H. T. Smith (1988); Subsequent commentary by W. K. D. Davies, John Dawson, and Brian J. L. Berry. Classics in Human Geography Revisited: Geography of Market Centers and Retail Distribution. Progress in Human Geography 16 (June 1992): 219-222; Other titles in the Foundation of Economic Geography Series include Geography of Agriculture, by Howard Gregor; Geography of Energy, by Nathaniel G. Guyol; Geography of International Trade, by Richard S. Thoman and Edgar C. Conkling; Geography of Manufacturing, by Gunnar Alexandersson; Geography of Natural Resources, by Ian Burton and Robert W. Kates; Geography of Transportation, by Edward J. Taafe and Howard L. Gauthier, Jr.; Geography of Urban Land Use, by Harold Mayer; Geography of Water Resources, by W. R. Derrick Sewell; Geography of Wholesaling, by James E. Vance, Jr.; and A Prologue to Population Geography, by Wilbur Zelinsky.]
The bases of our capacity to perceive environments and the behavioral responses based on those perceptions emerge as the focus of a new research theme in geography during the 1960s. The new terms-environmental perception and human behavior-appear in the title of a monograph published in 1967, which presents papers from a symposium held at the annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers in Columbus, Ohio in April 1965. The volume's papers, by Yi-Fu Tuan, Robert Beck, Joseph Sonnenfeld, Robert W. Kates, and Kevin Lynch, "demonstrate that subjective, often unconscious, and culturally dominated forces play a major role in how we see the environment and act in it" (1).
[David Lowenthal. ed. Environmental Perception and Behavior. Research Paper No. 109. Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1967.]
Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, Arizona establishes a Department of Geography and Public Planning in its College of Ecosystem Science and Management in 1967. The department offers a B.S. degree for majors in geography, geography education, applied geography, and public planning; an M.A. degree in rural geography; and a graduate level Certificate in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In 2003, the university’s Program in Parks and Recreation Management merges with the existing department to create the Department of Geography, Planning and Recreation. Restructuring within Northern Arizona University places the new department in the College of Arts and Sciences.
Ecoregions of Canada by John M. Crowley, is the first published map of ecoregions created by an American geographer. Ecoregion becomes a standard term for ecological-environmental regions defined in terms of relative homogeneity in climate, surface material such as soil, vegetation, and landforms. More comprehensive delimitations of ecoregions are subsequently prepared by James M. Omernik, Robert G. Bailey, and others, that incorporate systems of hierarchical and spatially nested sets of regions. Such systems of ecoregions are prepared for the United States, North America, and Earth.
[John M. Crowley. Biogeography [in Canada]. Canadian Geographer 11 (1967): 312-326, with Ecoregions of Canada [map]. approx. 1:31,000,000, 13 x 18 cm., 1 sheet; James M. Omernik. Ecoregions of the Conterminous United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77 (March 1987): 118-125, includes Ecoregions of the Conterminous United States [map]. 1:2,500,000, 42 x 65 cm., 1 sheet; Robert G. Bailey. Ecoregions of the United States [map]. 1:7,500,000, 42 x 66 cm., 1 sheet, 1976, with Description of the Ecoregions of the United States. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1391, revised and enlarged. Ogden, UT: U.S. Forest Service, 1995; Robert G. Bailey. Ecoregions of North America [map]. 1:15,000,000, 62 x 63 cm., 1 sheet, with Ecoregions Map of North American, Explanatory Note. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1548, revised. Washington, DC: U.S. Forest Service, 1997; Robert G. Bailey. Ecoregions: the Ecosystem Geography of the Oceans and the Continents. New York: Springer, 1998.]
West Virginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia establishes a Department of Geology and Geography in 1967 and a graduate program in geography in 1971. [www.wvu.edu]
University of Alaska in Fairbanks, Alaska establishes a Department of Geography in 1967. [www.uaf.edu]
The eighteen-volume International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, an update of the Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences (1930-35), provides an account of research interests in the social sciences during the 1960s. It aims "to reflect and encourage the rapid development of the social sciences throughout the world." Human and human-environment geography is represented with a set of summarizing articles-The Field by Richard Hartshorne, Cultural Geography by Edward T. Price, Economic Geography by Richard S. Thoman, Political Geography by Harold H. Sprout, Social Geography by Anne Buttimer, and Statistical Geography by Brian J. L. Berry. Other geography topics addressed are-Area by Norton Ginsburg, Cartography by Arthur H. Robinson, Central Place by Brian J. L. Berry and Chauncy D. Harris, Environment by Marston Bates, Environmentalism by Oscar H. K. Spate, Land Classification by L. Dudley Stamp, Landscape by Marvin W. Mikesell, Region by Rupert B. Vance, and Regional Science by Walter Isard and Thomas A. Reiner. Geographers receiving biographical sketches are-Nikolai N. Baranskii, Isaiah Bowman, Ralph H. Brown, H. J. Fleure, Alfred Hettner, Alexander von Humboldt, Ellsworth Huntington, Rudolf Kjellén, Halford Mackinder, George Perkins Marsh, Friedrich Ratzel, Carl Ritter, Carl O. Sauer, Pál Teleki, Paul Vidal de la Blache, and Johann H. von Thünen. (see Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences entry at 1930, and International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences at 2001)
[David L. Sills. ed. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 18 vols. plus biographical supplement. New York: Macmillan and The Free Press, 1968 & 1979; Statistical Geography, also in William H. Kruskal and Judith M. Tanur. eds. International Encyclopedia of Statistics. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan and Free Press, 1978.]
Around the World: a View from Space, a book by the map and atlas publishing firm of Rand McNally, provides the first set of images of Earth from space that is available to the general public. It features photographs taken by astronauts on the Gemini missions that are arranged by continent. Mission to Earth: Landsat Views of the World, published by the U.S. National Air and Space Administration (NASA) in 1976, is the first book to provide satellite images of Earth from space to the general public. By the 1980s, several atlases display mosaics of space images along with conventional maps (Rand McNally and Garrett). In 2000, NASA creates an Internet website-Great Images in NASA (GRIN)-that provides publicly accessible photographs from NASA and its predecessor agency, the U.S. National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (1915-1958). Each of the website’s images is downloadable to a personal computer and the site provides excellent instructions for doing that. Most of the website’s images are from NASA spacecraft such as the Hubble Space Telescope or robotic planetary exploration craft, but images of Earth are also included (grin.hq.nasa.gov).
[Rand McNally. Around the World: a View from Space. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1968; Nicholas M. Short et al. Mission to Earth: Landsat Views of the World. Scientific and Technical Office, National Air and Space Administration. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976; Rand McNally. Rand McNally Images of the World: an Atlas of Satellite Images and Maps. English edition of Dierke Weltraumbild-Atlas. 2 vols. Barunschweig, Germany: Westermann, 1981-82. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1983; Wilbur E. Garrett. ed. Atlas of North America: Space Age Portrait of a Continent. Washington: National Geographic Society, 1985; Kevin W. Kelley for the Association of Space Explorers. ed. The Home Planet. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. and Moscow, Russia: Mir Publishers, 1988; Roger Ressmeyer. ed. Orbit: NASA Astronauts Photograph the Earth. Washington: National Geographic Society, 1996.]
Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas establishes a Department of Geography in 1968 and its graduate program the same year. [www.tamu.edu]
Behavioral Problems in Geography: a Symposium, edited by Kevin R. Cox and Reginald G. Golledge, appears in 1969. It is the first scholarly book devoted to behavioral geography to be published in the United States. Together with no more than a handful of other efforts (Lynch, Saarinen, Lowenthal among them), Behavioral Problems in Geography establishes an initial scientific research agenda in behavioral geography, which blossoms during the 1970s in conjunction with environmental psychology, to explore the broad realms of environmental perception, environmental cognition, environmental behavior, and the ways they lead to our understanding and operating in the worlds in which we dwell. Geographers, who had explored the world for centuries, never again understood the world in quite the same frames of reference.
The early 1970s’ prove to be a time of efflorescence in behavioral geography research, a series of steps occur in rapid succession that prove to be landmarks in establishing this research domain – Roger Downs’ article, The Cognitive Structure of an Urban Shopping Center, is published; Golledge, Brown and Williamson’s Behavioral Approaches in Geography appears as the first article devoted to behavioral geography to be published in a scholarly geography journal; Image and Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior, edited by Downs and Stea, appears as the first book to be used as a text in college courses on behavioral geography; Gould and White’s landmark volume Mental Maps appears; and Yi-Fu Tuan’s landmark volume Topophilia: a Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values appears, and the National Science F oundation funds its first research in behavioral geography, a grant to Golledge and Rayner for the Cognitive Configurations of a City research project.
A perspective on the state of research in behavioral two decades later is provided by Golledge and Stimson’s Spatial Behavior: a Geographic Perspective and Gärling and Golledge’s Behavior and Environment: Psychological and Geographical Approaches. [Kevin R. Cox and Reginald G. Golledge. eds. Behavioral Problems in Geography: a Symposium. Studies in Geography No. 17. Evanston, IL: Department of Geography, Northwestern University, 1969; Kevin Lynch. The Image of the City. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 1960; Thomas Saarinen. Perceptions of the Drought Hazard on the Great Plains. Research Paper No. 106. Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1966; David Lowenthal. ed. Environmental Perception and Behavior. Research Paper No. 109. Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1967; Roger M. Downs. The Cognitive Structure of an Urban Shopping Center. Environment and Behavior 2 (1970): 13-39; Reginald G. Golledge. Larry A. Brown. and F. Williamson. Behavioral Approaches in Geography: an Overview. Australian Geographer 12 (1972): 59-79; Roger M. Downs and David Stea. eds. Image and Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior. Chicago: Aldine, 1973; Contemporary review, Joachim F. Wohlwill. Mental Geography [Review of Image and Environment]. Science 184 (3 May 1974): 557-558; Peter Gould and Rodney White. Mental Maps. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1974, With subsequent editions by Allen and Unwin, 1986 and Routledge, 1992, and commentary by John R. Gold, Thomas F. Saarinen, Peter Gould, and Rodney White. Classics in Human Geography Revisited: Mental Maps. Progress in Human Geography 19 (March 1995): 111-122; Yi-Fu Tuan. Topophilia: a Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1974, Reissued by Columbia University Press, 1990, and subsequent commentary by Douglas Pocock, Edward Relph and Yi-Fu Tuan. Classics in Human Geography Revisited: Topophilia. Progress in Human Geography 18 (September 1994): 355-359; National Science Foundation Grant to Reginald G. Golledge and John N. Rayner: Cognitive Configurations of a City, NSF #GS37967; Reginald G. Golledge and Robert J. Stimson. Spatial Behavior: A Geographic Perspective. New York: Guilford Press, 1997; Tommy Gärling and Reginald G. Golledge. eds. Behavior and Environment: Psychological and Geographical Approaches. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1993]
ESRI, a private firm developing geographic information system (GIS) software and technology, is established as Environmental Systems Research Institute, a privately held consulting group by Jack and Laura Dangermond in Redlands, California in 1969. It introduces its first commercial software, ARC/INFO, which combines the computer display of geographic features such as points, lines, and polygons, with database management tools for assigning attributes to those features. ESRI’s products come to include ArcView, ArcGIS, ArcWeb and other GIS software, and printed publications. By the early 2000s, ESRI has distributors in more than 90 countries; 1,500 business partners; and more than 300,000 clients worldwide.
Progress in Geography: International Reviews of Current Research begins publication as an annual journal "to present regular, scholarly reviews of current developments within all branches of the field [of geography] on a scale that will allow the specialist contributors an opportunity to develop broad geographical themes and to provide comprehensive bibliographic material" (vi). In 1977, the success of Progress in Geography leads it to divide into two annual journals-Progress in Human Geography: International Reviews of Geographical Work in the Social Sciences and Humanities and Progress in Physical Geography: International Reviews of Geographical Work in the Natural and Environmental Sciences. By 1979, both journals are being issued four times a year and in 2002 Progress in Human Geography shifts to being issued six times a year. Their publication continues to the present.
[Christopher Board, Richard J. Chorley, Peter Haggett and David R. Stoddart. eds. Progress in Geography: International Reviews of Current Research. London: Edward Arnold.]
Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) is created by the International Council for Science (ICSU) as an interdisciplinary body of natural and social scientists in 1969. Its task is to focus on global environmental issues through an international network of scientists and scientific institutions that work to develop syntheses of scientific knowledge on current and potential environmental issues. Its scientific program consists of projects that focus on the concepts and practices of sustainability, maintaining the life-support systems of humankind by safeguarding Earth’s natural resources over time. SCOPE works to contribute to designing processes and practices that reduce the depletion rate of non-renewable resources, identifying substitute resources, and assuring a sustainable supply of renewable resources. Titles of selected publications-Climate Impact Assessment, Man-Made Lakes as Modified Ecosystems, Risk Assessment of Environmental Hazards, Scale and Global Change, and Sustainability Indicators.
The United States of America maintains membership in SCOPE through the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council’s Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicity in Washington, D.C. Geographers contribute to numerous investigations and Gilbert F. White serves as president, 1976-1982. SCOPE’s most recent general meeting, General Congress XI, is held in Bremen, Germany in September 2001.
The scholarly journal Antipode: a Radical Journal of Geography begins publication. Its publication continues to the present.
The scholarly journal Geographical Analysis: an International Journal of Theoretical Geography begins publication. Its publication continues to the present.
[Reginald G. Golledge. The Development of Geographical Analysis. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 69 (March 1979): 151-154.]
Terrae Incognitae, a scholarly journal of the Society for the History of Discoveries, begins publication. Its publication continues to the present. (see Society for the History of Discoveries entry at 1960)
National Atlas of the United States of America, the landmark publication edited by Arch C. Gerlach (1911-1972) of the U.S. Geological Survey, is the first thematic atlas issued by the U.S. federal government to provide comprehensive cartographic representations of the nation's physical and human geographies since the Statistical Atlas of the United States issued by the Census Office in conjunction with the censuses of 1870 and 1880.
[Arch C. Gerlach. ed. National Atlas of the United States of America. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970; Mark Monmonier. The Rise of the National Atlas. In John A. Wolter and Ronald E. Grim. eds. Images of the World: the Atlas Through History. New York: McGraw-Hill and Washington: Library of Congress, 1997. Pp. 369-399; electronic version of the atlas is at the Library of Congress American Memory Internet site - National Atlases: Presenting the Nation's Cultural Geography, memory.loc.gov.]
Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium, organized by Donald R. Coates and Marie Morisawa, meets for the first time at Binghamton University (State University of New York at Binghamton) in 1970. Each year since then, geomorphologists from geography, geology, and other backgrounds assemble from around the world to present and discuss the latest developments on a different research topic. Research papers presented at these annual symposiums are published in the series, Proceedings of the Binghamton Symposium in Geomorphology.
The Annual Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium provides a forum at which leading researchers present extended papers on a different theme each year. The symposium improves visibility for geomorphologists trained as geographers who regularly contribute papers. Geographers also frequently organize the symposia and edit the published volumes. Examples include Donald R. Coates and John D. Vitek. eds. Thresholds in Geomorphology, 1980; Colin E. Thorn. ed. Space and Time in Geomorphology, 1981; Michael J. Woldenberg. ed. Models in Geomorphology, 1983; Athol D. Abrahams. ed. Hillslope Processes, 1985; William G. Nickling. ed. Aeolian Geomorphology, 1986; John C. Dixon and Athol D. Abrahams. eds. Periglacial Geomorphology, 1992; J. D. Phillips and W. H. Renwick. Geomorphic Systems, 1992; John D. Vitek and J. R. Giardino. eds. Geomorphology Research Frontiers, 1993; Bruce L. Rhoads and Colin E. Thorn. eds. Scientific Nature of Geomorphology, 1996; J. R. Giardino, Richard A. Marston, and Marie Morisawa. eds. Engineering Geomorphology, 1997; Paul A. Gares and Douglas J. Sherman. eds. Coastal Geomorphology, 2002; Peter L. K. Knuepfer and James F. Petersen, organizers. Geomorphology in the Public Eye: Policy Issues, Education, and the Public, 30th Symposium, 1999; J. F. Shroder Jr. and M. P. Bishop, organizers. Integrating Computer Modeling and Field Work, 31st Symposium, 2000; D. R. Butler, S. J. Walsh and G. P. Malanson, organizers. Mountain Geomorphology, 32nd Symposium, 2001).
Earth Day is celebrated by an estimated 20 million Americans on April 22, 1970. This landmark event, which celebrates Earth’s environment and examines the role humans play as sustainers-despoilers of it, is conceived by Gaylord Nelson, then a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin. Nelson develops the concept for Earth Day over a seven-year period while attempting to raise the profile of environmental issues in the U.S. Senate and in the minds of the American public. In 1969, he links the example of grassroots teach-in protests of America’s war in Vietnam with his environmental concerns and announces at a conference in Seattle that a nationwide grassroots demonstration would take place the following spring to which all Americans are invited. Local efforts to organize teach-ins on the proposed Earth Day so proliferate across the country that the New York Times reports on Sunday, November 30, 1969 that "Rising concern about the environmental crisis is sweeping the nation's campuses with an intensity that may be on its way to eclipsing student discontent over the war in Vietnam... .”
While in the U.S. Senate, Nelson champions landmark environmental laws including the Wilderness Act, National Trails Act, National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, and National Environmental Education Act, and introduces the first federal legislation to mandate fuel-efficiency standards in automobiles, control strip mining, ban the use of phosphates in detergents, the pesticide DDT, and the defoliant 2,4,5-T. For his contributions in raising the awareness of the role humans play in altering the physical environment, he receives the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1995 and the University of Wisconsin renames its Institute for Environmental Studies the Gaylord Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies in 2002.
Within a remarkably short period of time Earth Day, the federal government creates the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to administer the plethora of new environmental laws enacted by the U.S. Congress; the United Nations convenes the Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm in 1972 and issues its Declaration of the U.N. Conference on the Human Environment; and a heightened attentiveness to Earth’s physical and biological environments, and the relationships of humans to those environments, can be said to have encompassed Earth as never before.
The immediate response of America’s academic geographers to this blossoming of interest in the environment is creation of the Panel on Environmental Education of the Commission on College Geography, and of the Task Force on Environmental Quality, by the Association of American Geographers (Manners and Mikesell, Lowenthal et al.). In the publication, Perspectives on Environment, the Panel on Environmental Education documents the role that environment has traditionally played in research by geographers and shows how this domain of geographic research is characterized by – a long-standing commitment to environmental studies; understanding the significant factors of location, diffusion, and scale; an awareness of the complexity of man-environment interactions; the recognition that problems of environmental quality must be considered not only in physical and biological terms but also in relation to human perceptions, needs, and desires; and long experience in addressing research questions in terms of systems and processes. Perspectives on Environment provides a set of review articles addressing environmental problems that have been historically, are currently, and-or should be of interest to geographers, the scientific community, and the larger society.
[Ian R. Manners and Marvin W. Mikesell. eds. Perspectives on Environment. Commission on College Geography Publication No. 13. Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers, 1974; David Lowenthal, Ian Burton, Richard Cooley, and Marvin W. Mikesell. Report of the AAG Task Force on Environmental Quality. Professional Geographer 25 (1973): 39-47; www.unep.org; www.aag.org.]
Geoscience and Man, a series of scholarly monographs published by Louisiana State University's Department of Geography and Anthropology, begins publication. Its publications include scholarly symposia, research, and collections of papers in anthropology, archaeology, geography, geology, meteorology, paleontology, and other areas of the geosciences. The series includes 36 volumes by 2000.
Geography in an Urban Age, curriculum materials for an innovative high school geography course created by the High School Geography Project of the Association of American Geographers, are published. The course consists of a sequence of six separate units-Geography of Cities, Manufacturing and Agriculture, Cultural Geography, Political Geography, Habitat and Resources, and Japan-designed to provide either a full-year ninth or tenth grade geography course, or serve as individual teaching units.
Classroom materials consist of Geography in an Urban Age (a teacher’s guide, student reading books, and a set of activity resource materials for each of the six units), and two reference volumes-The Local Community: a Handbook for Teachers, and Sources of Information and Materials: Maps and Aerial Photographs. This set of materials is developed in response to calls made during the 1960s for curriculums that emphasize ‘discovery learning’ techniques, and reflect as well, the desire that students be introduced to the ways real-world physical geographies, human geographies, and human-environment relationships are investigated prior to their entering college. Implicitly, the materials may be seen to respond to the much earlier calls of American education reformers Horace Mann and John Dewey among others for developmental approaches to education that are grounded in hands-on student-centered learning activities and that relate to the contemporary lifeworld of the student.
The new set of curriculum materials emerges from a process that originated in a panel discussion-Teaching Geography in Our Secondary Schools-at the 1959 annual meetings of the Association of American Geographers. At that session, Gilbert White proposes that, in terms of preparing students for further coursework in geography at the college level, the greatest gains from new high school geography curriculum materials would be derived from an activity-based approach to learning basic geographic concepts and understanding, and from the development of an honors course that would enable students seriously interested in geography to obtain advanced standing upon entering college. Taking this as its working concept, the Association of American Geographers and National Council on Geographic Education create a Joint Committee on Education that initiates the process of ascertaining the best single alternative curriculum to those already utilized by the nation’s high schools, which typically imbed geography within the social studies curriculum.
The High School Geography Project is initiated with financial support from the Fund for the Advancement of Education of the Ford Foundation under the direction of William D. Pattison (1961-63), and continues under the direction of Nicholas Helburn (1964-70) with funding from the National Science Foundation ($2.6 million). It involves over 300 geographers in the preparation of course materials and an equal number of classroom teachers in over 200 schools. A revised edition of Geography in an Urban Age is issued in 1979.
[William D. Pattison. Changing Attitudes and the High School Geography Project. In Clyde F. Kohn. ed. Selected Classroom Experiences: High School Geography Project. Geographic Education Series No. 4. Normal, IL: National Council for Geographic Education, 1964. Pp. 34-37; Nicholas Helburn. The Educational Objectives of High School Geography. Journal of Geography 67 (May 1968): 279-281; High School Geography Project. Geography in an Urban Age. New York: Macmillan, 1970 (revised edition, 1976); High School Geography Project. The Local Community: a Handbook for Teachers. New York: Macmillan, 1971; High School Geography Project. Sources of Information and Materials: Maps and Aerial Photographs. Washington: High School Geography Project, Association of American Geographers, 1970; William D. Pattison. Geography in the High School. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 52 (September 1962): 280-284; Donald J. Patton. ed. From Geographic Discipline to Inquiring Student: Final Report on the High School Geography Project. Washington: Association of American Geographers, 1970; Clyde F. Kohn. ed. Selected Classroom Experiences: the High School Geography Project. Normal, IL: National Council for Geographic Education, 1964; Association of American Geographers High School Geography Project and American Sociological Association Sociological Resources for the Social Studies. Experiences in Inquiry: HSGP and SRSS. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1974; Robert B. McNee. Does Geography Have a Structure? Can It Be ‘Discovered’? The Case of the High School Geography Project. In Richard J. Chorley. ed. Directions in Geography. London: Methuen and Co., 1973. Pp. 285-313; Nicholas Helburn. The High School Geography Project: a Retrospective View. Social Studies89 (1998): 212-218.]
Geographers on Film, a series of filmed interviews of geographers produced by Maynard Weston Dow, records its first interview-with Carl O. Sauer (1889-1975) at the University of California at Berkeley in August 1970. Over the next three decades, Wes Dow and his wife Nancy F. Dow, produce a series that totals over 500 productions of visual and oral recordings, including personal interviews and sessions at scholarly meetings. The series of nearly 300 hours of video (VHS) recordings preserves the geographical and personal thoughts of over 250 geographers.
[Listings and Geographers on Film-Visual Record and Archival Resource at Internet site-oz.plymouth.edu/~mwd.]
Transition, the Quarterly Journal of SERGE [Socially and Ecologically Responsible Geographers], edited by Laurence G. Wolf, begins publication. It ceases publication in 1988.
Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers (CLAG) is established in 1970 to foster geography education and research on Latin America through conferences and publications. It publishes the annual Yearbook beginning in 1985, which becomes the Journal of Latin American Geography in 2002.
University of Idaho in Moscow, Idaho offers a graduate program in geography beginning in 1965 and establishes its Department of Geography in 1970. [www.uidaho.edu]
Rhode Island College in Providence, Rhode Island establishes a Department of Political Science/Geography in 1970. [www.ric.edu]
The scholarly journal Historical Geography begins publication. An annual journal, its publication continues to the present.
Salem State College, in Salem, Massachusetts, establishes a Department of Geography offering a B.S. degree program in 1972. The department grows into a program that includes more than ten full-time faculty positions and 200 majors, with subject specialties in planning, environmental management, and travel and tourism. A cartography and geographic information systems (GIS) B.S. degree program is initiated in 1982, and an M.S. degree program in geo-information science in 1992. While offering a curriculum that is well grounded in standard systematic and regional courses, many undergraduates are also attracted to the department’s wide range of applied courses that include internship opportunities.
The department is honored twice with Salem State College’s Department of the Year Award, in 1982 and 2002; recognized by the Governor’s Office for its exceptional working relationships with businesses and public agencies in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; and designated a Commonwealth Center of Excellence in 1986, which includes a $232,000 grant to establish the Digital Geography Laboratory. Members of the department have also served as leaders in the Massachusetts Geographic Alliance and the Northeast Global Education Center for Teachers.
Historically, geography has enjoyed a strong presence in the training of teachers at Salem State, extending straight through its Normal School (1854-1931) and Teachers College (1932-1960) periods. Two geography courses, Physical Geography and Projections of the Sphere, were included in the institution’s initial curriculum offering in 1854, and Arnold H. Guyot lectured at Salem Normal School in 1856, two years after he had joined the faculty at Princeton University as Professor of Physical Geography. Sumner W. Cushing (1879-1920), the innovative teacher and dedicated scholar who taught at Salem State during the early 1900s, brought many outstanding geographers to lecture at the school, including William Morris Davis, Ellsworth Huntington, Ray H. Whitbeck, and Richard E. Dodge. Carl O. Sauer taught here during the 1913-14 academic year, and based upon this experience, suggested that Normal Schools deserved more recognition as training grounds for professional geographers. The strong early tradition of geography at Salem State provided the basis for the rapid growth and development of degree programs in the latter half of the twentieth century.
[ www.dgl.salemstate.edu; Mildred Berman. Distinctly Professional: the Development of Geography at Salem State College. In John E. Harmon and Timothy Rickard. eds. Geography in New England. New Britain, CN: New England-St. Lawrence Valley Geographical Society, 1988. Pp. 30-39; Theodore S. Pikora. An Applied Geography Curriculum Component in Travel and Tourism. In John E. Harmon and Timothy Rickard. eds. Geography in New England. New Britain, CN: New England-St. Lawrence Valley Geographical Society, 1988. Pp.131-135; Ellsworth Huntington. Memoir of Sumner W. Cushing. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 11 (1921): 109-111; Richard O. Riess. Some Notes on Salem, Salem Normal School, and Carl Sauer: 1914. Proceedings: New England-St. Lawrence Valley Geographical Society (1976): 63-68.]
The Cultural Geography of the United States, the landmark book by Wilbur Zelinsky, Penn State University, appears in 1973 as a volume in the Foundations of Cultural Geography Series published by Prentice-Hall. It provides a masterful summary of the origins and spread of American subpopulations and their cultural systems; defines the four major attributes of America’s ‘national character’ – individualism, high value placed on mobility and change, mechanistic world view, and a messianic perfectionism – and demonstrates how these traits manifest themselves in the landscape; describes the geographical processes shaping the cultural system; and articulates the resultant five macro-scale sub-national regions – New England, Midland (Mid-Atlantic), South, Middle West, and West – and their component sub-regions.
The work includes Zelinsky’s original and influential map of the country’s first-order, second-order and third-order culture regions (pages 118 and 119), which will be amplified and extended in some 400 drawings and maps in the subsequent This Remarkable Continent: an Atlas of United States and Canadian Society and Cultures, prepared by numerous contributors. Zelinsky’s Cultural Geography and the Remarkable Continent atlas by multiple authors are ‘must reads’ for citizens seeking to be geographically literate prior to undertaking any serious field expeditions to discovery the human geography of the United States first hand.
[Wilbur Zelinsky. The Cultural Geography of the United States. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973; John F. Rooney, Jr., Wilbur Zelinsky, Dean R. Louder, John D. Vitek and numerous others. This Remarkable Continent: an Atlas of United States and Canadian Society and Cultures. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press for the Society for the North American Cultural Survey, 1982; Other volumes in the Foundations of Cultural Geography Series include Cultural Ecology, by Marvin Mikesell; Environments and Peoples, by Philip L. Wagner; Frontiers of Political Geography, by Roger E. Kasperson; Geography of Cities, by James E. Vance, Jr.; Geography of Domestication, by Erich Isaac; House Form and Culture, by Amos Rapoport; Rural Landscapes of the Nonwestern World, by James M. Blaut; and Rural Landscapes of the Western World, by John Fraser Hart.]
Cartography and Geographic Information Science, a scholarly journal of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, begins publication as The American Cartographer. Its name changes from The American Cartographer to Cartography and Geographic Information Systems in 1990, and to it current name in 1999. Its publication continues to the present.
The scholarly journal, Journal of Historical Geography, begins publication in 1975. Its publication continues to the present.
Virginia Tech, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in Blacksburg, Virginia establishes a Department of Geography in 1975 and its graduate program in geography in 1979. [www.vt.edu]
Contemporary Metropolitan America: Twenty Geographical Vignettes (4 vols.), Urban Policy-Making and Metropolitan Dynamics: a Comparative Geographical Analysis, and A Comparative Atlas of America's Great Cities: Twenty Metropolitan Regions are the major publications prepared by the Comparative Metropolitan Analysis Project. The massive project, a collaborative undertaking of more than a hundred geographers, is directed by John S. Adams and Ronald Abler for the Association of American Geographers and is funded by the National Science Foundation. Conducted in the general framework of geography's urban research tradition, the six volumes provide a comprehensive-a combined total of 2,554 pages and 1,000 maps in the atlas-and explicitly comparative investigation of the nation's major urban settlements and the many societal issues associated with their governance, environment, spatial structure, housing, transportation, and schooling among other topics. Symbolically, they stand as American geography's gift to the nation for the bicentennial celebration of its Independence-a geographic portrait of those portions of the nation, its major metropolitan regions, where half its residents live at the beginning of the last quarter of the twentieth century.
[John S. Adams. ed. Contemporary Metropolitan America: Twenty Geographical Vignettes. 4 vols., sub-titled Historical Metropolitan Core Cities: Boston, New York/New Jersey, Philadelphia, Hartford/Central Connecticut; 19th Century Port Cities: Baltimore, New Orleans, San Francisco; 19th Century Inland Cities: Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Cleveland, Chicago, Detroit, St. Paul/Minneapolis, Seattle; and 20th Century Cities: Dallas, Miami, Houston, Atlanta, Los Angeles. Washington, D.C. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Co., 1976; John S. Adams. ed. Urban Policy-Making and Metropolitan Dynamics: a Comparative Geographical Analysis. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Co., 1976; John S. Adams and Ronald Abler. eds. A Comparative Atlas of America's Great Cities: Twenty Metropolitan Regions. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press for the Association of American Geographers, 1976; Jean Gottman. The Mutation of the American City: a review of the Comparative Metropolitan Analysis Project. Geographical Review 68 (April 1978): 201-208; Maurice Yeates. Review of the six Comparative Metropolitan Analysis Project volumes. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 68 (June 1978): 309-316.]
View of the World from Ninth Avenue, by the artist Saul Steinberg (1914-1999), appears as the cover illustration of The New Yorker magazine on March 29, 1976. Popularly termed 'The New Yorker's View of the World' and dubbed "the most iconic image in American art since Grant Wood's American Gothic" (Plagens), the westward-facing view from 9th Avenue in New York City incorporates the features-buildings, streets, people, and vehicles-one expects to find in a human settlement in the immediate foreground of Manhattan, but the remainder of the viewshed includes only names and stylized topographic features-"Jersey" across the Hudson River, the occasional name of a locality or topographic element dropped onto the otherwise featureless plain of North America, and the Pacific Ocean as a strip of water with Asia barely emerging on the horizon. Steinberg's picture provides a marvelous illustration of the topocentric (place-centered) nature of, and the spatial distortion inherent in, the images of physical space held by most persons-the 'mental maps' of our lifeworlds-as most people have greater contact with, are more familiar with, are more emotionally involved with, and possess a greater appreciation of the world located closer to them than portions located farther away. Other artists redraw Steinberg's New York City-based image scores of times to create world-view images from other localities, many of which appear on postcards in celebration of those places.
[Saul Steinberg. View of the World from Ninth Avenue. original artwork, 28 x 19 cm., for The New Yorker (March 29, 1976): cover; Peter Plagens. Have Pen, Will Draw. Newsweek (May 24, 1999); Roger M. Downs and David Stea. eds. Image and Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 1973; Peter Gould and Rodney While. Mental Maps. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, Inc., 1974.]
The scholarly journal Environmental History begins publication as a journal of the American Society for Environmental History with the title Environmental Review. First published as Environmental Review (1976-1989) and then as Environmental History Review (1990-1995), Environmental History becomes a co-published journal of the American Society for Environmental History and the Forest History Society in 1996. Its publication continues to the present.
University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut establishes a Department of Geography in 1976. [www.uconn.edu]
The scholarly annual publication Geographers: Biobibliographical Studies begins publication in 1977 under the auspices of the International Geographical Union’s Commission on the History of Geographical Thought. International in coverage, each geographer’s entry includes a biographical sketch, assessment of contributions to geographical thought and the larger society, bibliography, list of sources, and portrait. Its publication continues to the present.
The first group of American academic geographers to visit China during the post-Mao period is organized and conducted by Laurence J. C. Ma and Allen G. Noble, both at the University of Akron, in Akron, Ohio. The American group is officially received and visits several academic departments. Chinese academic geographers reciprocate by visiting university geography departments in the United States in 1978. Chinese and American geographers subsequently join together to share research findings at the Symposium at Wingspread Conference Center, in Racine, Wisconsin, 13-14 October 1978.
[Laurence J. C. Ma and Allen G. Noble. Recent Developments in Chinese Geographical Research. Geographical Review 69 (January 1979): 63-77; Laurence J. C. Ma and Allen G. Noble. eds. The Environment: Chinese and American Views. New York: Methuen and Co. for Ohio Academy of Science, 1981.]
The scholarly journal Polar Geography begins publication. Its publication continues to the present.
The first Applied Geography Conference is held to discuss the application of concepts, data, and methods to existing human and physical geographies. Annual meetings of the Applied Geography Conference bring together geographers and non-geographers, professional practitioners and academics, to address geographic aspects of public and private sector issues. Papers and Proceedings of the Applied Geography Conference is published annually in conjunction with the conference.
The Library of America is founded as an effort to preserve the nation's literary heritage by publishing America's best and most significant writing in authoritative and permanent editions. A project of truly historic proportions, this publishing adventure seeks to accomplish something never attempted before-both publishing important literary works and keeping them permanently in print and widely available. The first volume is published in 1982, and the 100-plus volume series now provides a survey of over two centuries of American novels, short stories, essays, poetry, plays, religious sermons, biographies, and journalism. Numerous works of fiction illuminate the nation’s human and physical geographies indirectly, and many of the non-fiction works address geography explicitly, including the volumes by John James Audubon, William Bartram, John Muir, Henry David Thoreau, and recently, the appearance of several volumes on explicit geographic locales-New York City, Los Angeles, and the sea. Simon’s volume serves as a guidebook to American literature via its locale-specific dimension.
[Phillip Lopate. ed. Writing New York: a Literary Anthology. New York: Library of America, 1988; David L. Ulin. ed. Writing Los Angeles: a Literary Anthology. New York: Library of America, 2002; Peter Neill. ed. American Sea Writing. New York: Library of America, 20000; Maggy Simon. ed. The Traveler’s Reading Guide: Ready-Made Reading Lists for the Armchair Traveler. 2nd edition. New York: Facts on File, 1993 (1987); www.loa.org].
The scholarly journal Journal of Cultural Geography begins publication. Its publication continues to the present.
The scholarly journal Urban Geography begins publication. Its publication continues to the present.
The scholarly journal Physical Geography begins publication. Its publication continues to the present.
The scholarly journal Journal of Cultural Geography begins publication. Its publication continues to the present.
Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis (IUPUI) establishes a Department of Geography chaired by Fredrick L. Bein. The university's first courses in geography were offered by George Knadler in 1971. The first Bachelors degree in geography is awarded in 1980. The department currently offers the Bachelors and Masters degrees in geography and a graduate certificate in Geographic Information Science.
Gilbert Fowler White, of the University of Colorado, receives the Award for Environmental Quality from the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. The Award for Environmental Quality is given "for outstanding contributions based on science or technology to improve the quality of the environment or the control of pollution by man."
GeoResearch Inc. is founded by Douglas S. Richardson as one of the first American firms in the private sector devoted specifically to geographic research with electronic systems. GeoResearch Inc. invents, develops and patents the first real-time interactive GPS/GIS (global positioning system/geographic information system) technology. This technology becomes the heart of GPS mapping, automated vehicle location systems, mobile geographic computing, interactive geographic management and location-based service systems. It revolutionizes the ways in which large-scale maps are made and used.
[Douglas B. Richardson. Managing with Maps: the Convergence of GPS and GIS Technologies. Plenary Session Presentation. In Federal Geographic Technology Conference. Fort Collins, CO: GIS World Books, 1994; Douglas B. Richardson. GeoLink Unites GPS and GIS Technologies. GIS World 4 (September, 1991); Douglas B. Richardson. Doing Geography: a Perspective on Geography in the Private Sector. In Martin S. Kenzer. ed. On Becoming a Professional Geographer . Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing Company, 1989. Pp. 66-74.]
North American Cartographic Information Society [NACIS] is established as a professional society in 1980. The organization’s aim is to facilitate communication among individuals in the map information community from private, academic, and governmental organizations; promote communication between professional organizations and institutions involved with producing cartographic information; improve the use of cartographic materials through education; promote the acquisition, preservation, and retrieval of cartographic information; and influence government policy on cartographic information.
International Map Trade Association (IMTA) is established to promote the common interests of individuals, firms, and institutions engaged in the production and sale of maps, globes, travel guides, spatial information and related products and materials in 1981. The organization grows to include more than 700 companies in 50 countries, and reorganizes into three semi-autonomous regional bodies, IMTA of Asia Pacific; IMTA of Europe, Africa, and the Middle East; IMTA of the Americas.
The scholarly journal History of Geography Newsletter [later History of Geography Journal], edited by Geoffrey J. Martin, begins publication. It ceases publication in 1988.
The scholarly journal Political Geography Quarterly begins publication in 1982. With volume 11 (January 1992), the journal’s name changes to Political Geography. Its publication continues to the present.
Geospatial Information & Technology Association is established as AM/FM International in 1982 to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas in the field of automated mapping/facilities management (AM/FM). It takes its current name of Geospatial Information & Technology Association (GITA) in 1998. GITA's mission is to facilitate education and information exchange on the use and benefits of geospatial information and technology in telecommunications, infrastructure, and utility applications throughout the world. It seeks to serve infrastructure-based organizations that can benefit from the application of geospatial information technologies. Such organizations include electric utilities, gas utilities, telecommunications companies, water and wastewater utilities, public works, local governments, oil and gas pipelines. By 2000, the organization's membership includes more than 2,200 individuals, 140 user affiliates, and 150 vendor companies.
The Making of America: the Southwest, the first of a series of seventeen two-sided map sheets depicting the regional evolution of human geography in the United States, appears in the November 1982 issue of National Geographic Magazine. These two-sided map sheets contain a set of small-scale maps and text depicting the evolution of the region’s human geography on the obverse, and a full-page regional map displaying contemporary physical and human geographic features, with significant sites identified, on the reverse. The maps are conceptualized and researched by Donald W. Meinig of Syracuse University, and produced in the National Geographic Society’s Cartographic Division, under the direction of John B. Garver, Jr. The series of maps reach an audience of 10.6 million National Geographic subscribers.
[Donald W. Meinig. ed. The Making of America. 17 two-sided color map sheets. Scales of the regional maps vary from 1:4,295,000 (Texas) to 1:1,056,000 (New England). Washington: Cartographic Division, National Geographic Society. Maps appear periodically as supplements to National Geographic Magazine from volumes 162 (November 1982) to 173 (June 1988).]
A Nation at Risk, a report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education, declares "that while we can take justifiable pride in what our schools and colleges have historically accomplished and contributed to the United States and the well-being of its people, the educational foundations of our society are presently being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity that threatens our very future as a Nation and as a people...If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance that exists today, we might well have viewed it as an act of war" (National Commission on Excellence in Education 1983, 5). Six million copies of A Nation at Risk are printed.
Commission chair, David P. Gardner subsequently notes that "in 1960-61, only 14 percent of America's 7-12 graders were enrolled in geography courses. This was a lower percentage than had been standard for years. By the mid-1970s, however, the figure had dropped to 9 percent [but] geography has always been a rich discipline in its capacity to unfold the wonders of other cultures, other settlement patterns, and other attitudes toward the environment and the earth and its resources...This comprehension of distinct and sometimes vividly divergent ways of life provides children with a wonderful vision of the world and their place in it. It is not only a vision of life lived differently; it is a vision that leads to a better understanding of one's own way of life. To study another place, another society, another people is always to explore one's own universe through contrast and comparison...I welcome the energetic efforts of geographers to strengthen this educational resource in American classrooms" (Gardner 1986, 2-3).
[National Commission on Excellence in Education. A Nation at Risk: the Imperative for Educational Reform. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983; David Pierpont Gardner. Geography in the School Curriculum Annals of the Association of American Geographers 76 (March 1986): 1-4.]
Guidelines for Geographic Education: Elementary and Secondary Schools is prepared by the Joint Committee on Geographic Education of the National Council for Geographic Education and the Association of American Geographers as a statement for improving geography education in the United States. It describes five themes that are deemed fundamental in geographic inquiry-location, place, relationships within places, movement, and regions-and outlines a course of study for geography education in America's elementary and secondary schools that is based on these five themes.
The Summit in Geographic Education, a conference convened a decade after the guidelines for geography education were issued, declares "a benefit of the reform movement in geographic education has been the widespread process of self-assessment in the discipline [of geography], with no segment escaping scrutiny. We share a belief that the geographic perspective can provide a comprehensive picture of a complex problem...Geography accepts diversity within regions defined by shared characteristics, considers problems at many scales, understands the inter-relatedness of parts of a system, considers environmental interactions with human behavior, and often encourages a broad and integrative perspective...Geographers can theorize, but they can also apply their knowledge. Having analyzed the needs, the time is now ripe for application" (Bednarz and Peterson, 9).
[Joint Committee on Geographic Education (Salvatore J. Natoli, Richard Boehm, James B. Kracht, David Lanegran, Janice J. Monk, and Robert W. Morrill). Guidelines for Geographic Education: Elementary and Secondary Schools. Washington: Association of American Geographers and National Council for Geographic Education, 1984; Robert S. Bednarz and James F. Peterson. eds. A Decade of Reform in Geographic Education: Inventory and Prospect. Indiana, PA: National Council for Geographic Education, 1995; Robert J. Marzano and John S. Kendall. Implementing Standards-Based Education. Washington: National Education Association, 1998.]
South Dakota becomes the first state in the modern era to include geography in its state-wide secondary school curriculum requirements. With the graduating class of 1988, all high school graduates in South Dakota are required to have successfully completed an independent one-semester course in geography. Many of the state’s schools come to adopt a full-year (two-semester) geography course.
Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?, a computer-based geography education game produced by Brøderbund Software, is issued. The education software program becomes a best seller and wins numerous awards, including World Class Award (1966) and Best CD-ROM for Children (1997) from the magazine PCWorld. It inspires a popular television show of the same name broadcast on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS), books, magazines, games, puzzles, and additional computer games in geography, Where in the U.S.A. is Carmen Sandiego?, and in history, Carmen Sandiego's Great Chase Through Time.
The scholarly journal National Geographic Research, sponsored by the National Geographic Society’s Committee for Research and Exploration, begins publication. Its title changes to National Geographic Research and Exploration: a Scholarly Publication of the National Geographic Society with volume 7 (Winter 1991). Its publication continues through volume 10 (Autumn 1994).
British Academy, established in 1902 as the British Academy for the Promotion of Historical, Philosophical and Philological Studies, elects Paul Wheatley (1921-1999) as a corresponding fellow. He is the Academy’s first geographer elected to membership from the United States. Other geographers elected as corresponding members from the United States are Brian J. L. Berry, Donald W. Meinig, David Woodward, David W. Harvey, and Yi-Fu Tuan. David Lowenthal, the American geographer on the faculty at University College London, is elected as an ordinary fellow, a scholar residing in the United Kingdom.
The British Academy is Britain’s national organization honoring distinguished scholars in the humanities and social sciences, counterpart to its Royal Society, which honors individuals achieving distinction in the natural sciences. Corresponding fellows are scholars “habitually resident outside the United Kingdom who have attained high international standing” in the humanities and social sciences.
The first State Geographic Alliance is established in California to promote geography education in that state with the support of the National Geographic Society. Within a decade, similar alliances are established among universities, public officials, and private businesses to promote geography education in schools in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and throughout Canada.
[Christopher L. Salter. Geography and California's Educational Reform: One Approach to a Common Cause. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 76 (March 1986): 5-17.]
The History of Cartography: Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean, the first volume in the projected six-volume History of Cartography is published in 1987. As the three installments of volume two of History of Cartography appear over the next decade, it readily becomes apparent that this work stands as a continental-scale landmark in geographic, cartographic, and history of science scholarship and publishing. The series, which undertakes the breathtaking task of literally presenting a cartographic history of the world from prehistory through the twentieth century, not only discovers, documents, interprets, and reveals, but reconceptualizes the role of maps and cartographic information in society.
The first two volumes, accounting for the history of cartography in the worlds of prehistoric, ancient, and medieval Europe and the Mediterranean, and in the traditional worlds of Islamic, South Asian, East and Southeast Asian, African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific societies, encompass nearly 3,000 pages, 150 color plates, and 1,600 black-and-white illustrations. They receive the Best Book in the Humanities Award for 1987 and the R. R. Hawkins Award for 1992, both from the Association of American Publishers, and the James Henry Breasted Prize for 1999 from the American Historical Association.
The forthcoming four volumes will carry the history of cartography through the European Renaissance and Enlightenment, and the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.
[J. Brian Harley and David Woodward. eds. Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean. Volume 1 of The History of Cartography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987; J. Brian Harley and David Woodward. eds. Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies. Volume 2, Book 1 of The History of Cartography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992; J. Brian Harley and David Woodward. eds. Cartography in the Traditional East and Southeast Asian Societies. Volume 2, Book 2 of The History of Cartography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994; David Woodward and G. Malcolm Lewis. eds. Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies. Volume 2, Book 3 of The History of Cartography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998; David Woodward. ed. Cartography in the European Renaissance. Volume 3 of The History of Cartography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, forthcoming; D. Graham Burnett, Matthew Edney, Mary G. Sponberg Pedley, with David Woodward. eds. Cartography in the European Enlightenment. Volume 4 of The History of Cartography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, forthcoming; Cartography in the Nineteenth Century. Volume 5 ofThe History of Cartography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, forthcoming; Mark Monmonier and David Woodward. eds. Cartography in the Twentieth Century. Volume 6 of The History of Cartography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, forthcoming.]
The scholarly journal, Geomorphology, begins publication in 1987. Its publication continues to the present. (see Journal of Geomorphology entry at 1938)
Geography Awareness Week (GAW) is initiated as a week set aside in November to promote awareness of the importance of geography and to raise geographic literacy through support of geography education in America’s schools. It is sponsored by the National Geographic Society and endorsed by resolutions of the U. S. Congress, state and local governments.
In 1999, the Wednesday of Geography Awareness Week is set aside as GIS Day, to promote awareness of the diverse contributions made by geographic information system (GIS) technology in society today. The principal sponsors of GIS Day are National Geographic Society, Association of American Geographers (AAG), and ESRI, along with numerous co-sponsors are American Congress of Surveying and Mapping (ACSM), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), American Geographical Society, Geospatial Information & Technology Association (GITA), National States Geographic Information Council (NSGIC), National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE), National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA), University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS), Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA), The Nature Conservancy, the World Wildlife Federation (WWF) and the Wildlife Conservation Society.
Both Geography Awareness Week and GIS Day become annual events with local grassroots supported activities throughout the nation.
[www.nationalgeographic.com & www.gisday.com]
Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know by E. D. Hirsch, Jr., professor of English at the University of Virginia, declares that education curriculums in American primary and middle schools (kindergarten through 8th grades) fail to provide students with the foundational information necessary to become competent citizens. Hirsch proposes that schools adopt a 'core knowledge' curriculum, a notion that is quickly embraced by the nation's growing standards-based education reform movement, and just as quickly attacked by others (Harvard Educational Review). Core knowledge reformers produce their first set of classroom materials for an integrated geography and history kindergarten-6th grade curriculum that consists of student books, teacher guides, and 4-14 modular units per grade (Hirsch 2001).
Numerous classroom and popular books of the don't-know-much genre begin to appear, each promoting its own version of foundational elements for the geography literate citizen.
[E. D. Hirsch, Jr. Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know, with Appendix: What Literate Americans Know. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1987; E. D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Tefil. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1988 & 1993; E. D. Hirsch, Jr. The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them. New York: Doubleday, 1996; Stanley Aronowitz and Henry A. Giroux. Schooling, Culture, and Literacy in the Age of Broken Dreams: a Review of Bloom [The Closing of the American Mind] and Hirsch [Cultural Literacy]. Harvard Educational Review 58 (1988): 172-194; James Paul Gee. The Legacies of Literacy: from Plato to Freire through Harvey Graff. Harvard Educational Review 58 (1988): 195-212; Peter L. McLaren. Culture or Cannon? Critical Pedagogy and the Politics of Literacy. Harvard Educational Review 58 (1988): 213-234; Kristen L. Buras. Questioning Core Assumptions: a Critical Reading of and Response to E. D. Hirsch's The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them. Harvard Educational Review 69 (Spring 1999): online; E. D. Hirsch, Jr. ed. History and Geography. Parsippany, NJ: Pearson Learning/Core Knowledge, 2001; Core Knowledge Foundation, www.coreknowledge.org; Kenneth C. Davis. Don't Know Much About Geography: Everything You Need to Know About the World But Never Learned. New York: Morrow, 1992; Kenneth C. Davis. Don't Know Much About the Planet Earth. New York: HarperCollins, 2001; Kenneth C. Davis. Don't Know Much About the Fifty States. New York: HarperCollins, 2001; Thomas E. Sherer, Jr. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Geography. New York: Alpha Books, 1997.]
The first World Geography Bowl, a geography quiz game similar to television's College Bowl quiz show, is held when Bashir Rabat, a student at North Carolina State University, challenges students of other North Carolina universities to a competition. A regional World Geography Bowl, organized by Neal Lineback, is held in conjunction with the 1990 annual meeting of the Southeast Division of the Association of American Geographers (SEDAAG). The first national-level World Geography Bowl competition, also organized by Neal Lineback, is held in conjunction with the 1993 annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers. State, regional, and national-level World Geography Bowl competitions promote geography education among college students and continue to the present.
[Neal Lineback. World Geography Bowl. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 383-386.]
Geography in the News, created by Neal Lineback of Appalachian State University, is a weekly column and analytic map that examines a news event in terms of its many geographies and of the physical and human factors that help create those geographies. Geography in the News appears as a feature on the Internet for the first time in 2000 and is distributed to more than 3,000 schools by spring 2001.
[www.geographyinthenews.com; www.maps.com. Neal Lineback. History of Geography in the News. In James O. Wheeler and Stanley D. Brunn. eds. The Role of the South in the Making of American Geography: Centennial of the AAG, 2004. Columbia, MD: Bellwether Publishing for Southeastern Division, Association of American Geographers, 2004. Pp. 381-383.]]
GEO World, the first monthly general-circulation magazine devoted to geographic information systems (GIS) begins publication as GIS World.
U-Haul International Inc., the American truck and trailer rental company, begins placing large graphic images that depict significant local places or activities on the sides of their vehicles. The large vehicle-size images feature well-known attributes of a specific state, province, or city, and text that identifies the locale. Implemented by U-Haul as a pictorial tribute to North America, images represent features in all states, provinces, and numerous cities. In 1998, U-Haul extends the program to include images that feature less well known attributes. The 200 different local-feature images create a mobile on-the-road discovery-North-America's-place-specific-geography game. U-Haul reports that "teachers and students alike have been using [these images] for years to help make geography lessons fun. U-Haul distributes more than 250,000 games at no cost to students every year" (U-Haul Internet site, December 19, 2001).
The computer game, SimCityTM, created by Will Wright, is released to the general public in 1989. It is an open-ended non-combative system-simulation computer game designed to model urban settlements. It is distributed by Maxis, a software publishing firm created by Will Wright and Jeff Braun, and becomes the world’s first best-selling simulation game and one of the most popular computer games of the next decade, ranking near the top of the Hall of Fame list compiled by Computer Gaming World Magazine.
During the decade following its release, several updated versions of SimCityTM appear. Several other simulation games from Maxis also appear that feature geographic themes—SimFarmTM (the vicissitudes of farming, an occupation with perhaps the most explicit interactions between humans and the physical-biological environment), SimIsle: Missions in the RainforestTM (a rainforest environment), and SimEarth: the Living PlanetTM (Earth). The creator of all of these simulation games, Will Wright, reveals his basic geographic world view with the title he is reported to have once used on his business card—‘Metaphorical Cartographer’.
SimCityTM represents the first computer-age educational technology (software) response to the call issued by the High School Geography Project during the 1960s for ‘hands-on, real-world based’ classroom teaching methods that it could then only answer with non-computer simulation games (see Geography in an Urban Age entry at 1970). Its inherent teaching value is readily appreciated, and it soon appears in both secondary and college geography classrooms. Such simulations allow the activities occurring in geographic areas to evolve through time in an open-ended manner, thus enabling students to discover consequences of their decisions within class-period time frames. The inspiration for SimCityTM was the computer-based urban growth models of M.I.T. professor Jay Forrester; SimEarthTM was inspired by the Gaia notions of James Lovelock, an English environmental scientist.
[simcity.ea.com; Paul C. Adams. Teaching and Learning with SimCity 2000. Journal of Geography 97 (March-April 1998): 47-55; Jay W. Forrester. Urban Dynamics. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 1969; James E. Lovelock. Gaia: a New Look at Life on Earth. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.]
The National Geography Bee is established as an annual nation-wide geography competition organized by the National Geographic Society of Washington, D.C. The goals of the Geography Bee are to stimulate student interest in geography, encourage teachers to include the subject in their classes, and to increase public awareness of geography. It is similar to the long-running National Spelling Bee competition administered by the E. W. Scripps Company, which was started by the Courier-Journal newspaper in Louisville, Kentucky in 1925.
Participation in the National Geography Bee is open to elementary- and middle-school students enrolled in grades 4-8. Each year’s Geography Bee consists of three rounds—competitions within schools to produce school champions, state-level eliminations to produce state champions, and a national-level competition among state winners that is televised from the National Geographic Society to produce a national champion. In 1993, the National Geographic Society organized the first international geography competition at the Royal Geographic Society in London, England. This international competition—the National Geographic World Championship—is conducted every two years.
John R. Borchert (1918-2001), the distinguished professor of geography at the University of Minnesota is honored when that university names its map collection the John R. Borchert Map Library in 1989. Professor Borchert had been a member of the university’s faculty from 1949 to 1989. The John R. Borchert Map Library is located in the O. M. Wilson Library on the University of Minnesota’s Minneapolis campus. (map.lib.umn.edu)
[John R. Borchert. A Journey of Discovery. In Peter Gould and Forrest R. Pitts. eds. Geographical Voices: Fourteen Autobiographical Essays. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2002. Pp. 27-51]
Cartographic Perspectives, a scholarly-professional journal of the North American Cartographic Information Society, begins publication. Its publication continues to the present. (see North American Cartographic Information Society at 1980)
The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years reports on human-induced transformations of Earth's physical environment over the past 300 years and their regional impacts at the close of the twentieth century. The 720-page volume includes 42 reports in four topical sections-Changes in Population and Society, Transformations of the Global Environment, Regional Studies of Transformation, and Understanding Transformations. The volume's reports were originally presented and discussed at an international symposium sponsored by International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, World Resources Institute, and Clark University's Graduate School of Geography, and convened at Clark University in 1987. The symposium was hosted by the Graduate School of Geography in celebration of Clark University's 100th anniversary and led to creation of Clark University's George Perkins Marsh Institute.
A retrospective summation of the volume, appearing four years after its issuance, concludes-"The great international research enterprise designed to understand how the earth works will supply, if all goes well, untold observations of the earth, new models that link the present disparate realms of land, air, water, and people, and novel transnational institutions of study and policy. At the same time, the phenomenal challenge posed by the doubling of world population and quadrupling of consumption within the lifetime of today's children will demand the very best of science, understanding, and collective action if humankind is to navigate safely the extraordinary passage ahead. For geographers, for whom the human use of the earth is a central question, it is not too early to use the occasion of this reflection on ET to ask of ourselves and our species: beyond modification, beyond transformation, what ought to be the human use of the earth?" (Earle).
[Billie Lee Turner II, William C. Clark, Robert W. Kates, John F. Richards, Jessica T. Mathews, William B. Meyer. eds. The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990; Carville Earle et al. The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Conversations in the Round: the Forum's Aims and Ambitions. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 84 (December 1994): 710-731.]
National Goals for Education, a report issued by the National Governor's Association, calls for increased societal emphasis on education. The report designates geography, science, mathematics, history, and English as core subjects for the curriculum of America's elementary and secondary schools. The call for reforms in American education by state governors responds to the declaration of the federal government's National Commission on Excellence in Education report A Nation at Risk-"that while we can take justifiable pride in what our schools and colleges have historically accomplished and contributed to the United States and the well-being of its people, the educational foundations of our society are presently being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity that threatens our very future as a Nation and as a people...If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance that exists today, we might well have viewed it as an act of war" (National Commission on Excellence in Education 1983, 5). Six million copies of A Nation at Risk are printed.
[National Governor's Association Task Force on Education. National Goals for Education. Washington: National Governor's Association, 1990; National Commission on Excellence in Education. A Nation at Risk: the Imperative for Educational Reform. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983.]
The Geography Learning of High School Seniors is issued as part of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) program of the U.S. Department of Education. It provides results of the first nation-wide assessment of geographic understanding among high school seniors, a limited though national-scale sample survey administered in 1988. It finds that “our country’s high-school seniors are not well versed in geography. Most students did not demonstrate an understanding of the basic concepts of physical and cultural geography, and many did not correctly identify the location of major countries, cities, and landmarks. Further, many of the students did not seem to understand that maps can be used to derive all kinds of information about the world, rather than simply to find places” (Allen 7).
In 1994 and 2001, The U.S. Department of Education’s National Center for Education Statistics produces nation-wide assessments of geography understanding at grades 4, 8, and 12 (Persky and National Center for Education Statistics). Each wave of assessments queries levels of geographic understanding in three content areas-Space and Place, Environment and Society, and Spatial Dynamics and Connections. The assessment questionnaires are administered to a national sample of approximately 25,000 students in some 1,100 public and non-public schools. The next round of NAEP geography assessments is scheduled for 2010.
[Russell Allen et al. The Geography Learning of High School Seniors. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990; Hilary Persky et al. NAEP 1994 Geography Report Card: Findings fro the National Assessment of Educational Progress. NCES No. 96-087. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996; U.S. National Center for Education Statistics. The Nation's Report Card: Geography 2001. NCES No. 2002-484. Washington: National Center for Education Statistics, 2002.]
Robert W. Kates, University Professor and Director of Brown University's Alan Shawn Feinstein World Hunger Program, is awarded the National Medal of Science by the President of the United States. He receives the award for his fundamental contributions to the understanding of natural and man-made hazards, global environmental change, and the prevalence and persistence of world hunger. Kates is the first geographer to receive the nation’s highest science honor, which is awarded to scientists and engineers for the cumulative impact of an individual's work on the present state of physical, chemical, biological, mathematical, engineering, behavioral, or social science.
[Robert W. Kates. Hazard and Choice Perception in Flood Plain Management. Research Paper No. 78. Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1962; Robert W. Kates. The Human Environment: the Road Not Taken, the Road Still Beckoning. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77 (December 1987): 525-534.
The Shape of the World, a six-part series of Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television programs is aired. It reviews the history of bringing Earth’s surface into the realm of knowledge through developments in geography, exploration, and mapping. The series is produced by Granada Television International (UK) in association with WNET-13 of New York City; funded by IBM; and narrated by the actor Patrick Stewart. The series six episodes are-Empire (advances in science during the Renaissance), Heaven and Earth (coming to understand Earth as a geographic entity), Pictures of the Invisible (mapping the land), Secrets of the Sea (charting the oceans), Staking a Claim (Europe’s age of exploration), and The Writing on the Screen (electronic maps as information systems). The television presentation is supplemented by educational materials for teachers and students, provided for 100,000 classrooms by IBM.
[The Shape of the World [6 VHS tapes]; Simon Berthon and Andrew Robinson. The Shape of the World. Chicago: Rand, McNally and Co., 1991; teacher study guides (one for classes in science and one for social studies) and student booklets (one for classes in science and one for social studies) produced by TelEd, Inc.; George F. McCleary and Jenny Marie Johnson. ‘The Shape of the World’ and The Shape of the World. Meridian: a Journal of the Map and Geography Round Table of the American Library Association 6 (1991): 55 -60.]
International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP) establish an ad hoc working group chaired by B. L. Turner II and co-chaired by David Skole to investigate the possibilities of a joint natural and social science research effort on land-use and land-cover change. The group’s 1993 report, Relating Land Use and Global Land-Cover Change: a Proposal for an IGBP-HDP Core Program, makes the case that such an international science effort is both necessary and possible.
In 1992, the Core Project Planning Committee (IGBP)/Research Project Planning Committee (IHDP) chaired by B. L. Turner II and co-chaired by David Skole is charged with devising a scientific plan of investigation for an international and integrated natural-social science program of study on Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC). Drawing on international input, a Science Plan prepared by this committee, Land Use and Land-Cover Change: Science/Research Plan, is accepted by the sponsoring programs in 1995.
In January 1996, LUCC launches a joint Core Project of IGBP and IHDP by way of a LUCC Open Science Conference sponsored by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in Amsterdam. LUCC’s mission is to improve data, understanding, and modeling of land-change dynamics worldwide, at different spatio-temporal scales of analysis and consistent with the needs of international global environmental change research. Dave Skole serves as LUCC’s first chair, with the Core Project Office housed in the Institute Cartographic of Catalonia in Barcelona, Spain. In 1998, the office hosts a joint Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystem (GCTE) - Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC) Open Science Conference on Global Change. In 1999, Eric Lambin assumes the chair of LUCC and its office moves to the Department of Geography, University of Louvain in Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, where it currently resides. LUCC’s Implementation Strategy, Land-Use and Land-Cover Change Implementation Strategy, is also published in 1999.
While highly interdisciplinary in scope, geographers have been and remain strongly active in the 47 endorsed projects, 12 regional networks, 6 published reports of LUCC, and many special issues of periodicals, edited books and state-of-the-art papers. LUCC maintains ties with the International Geographical Union and with the Committee on Geography, U.S. National Research Council, in Washington, D.C., among other geographical organizations. (Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC) Internet site: www.geo.ucl.ac.be/LUCC; International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Internet site: www.igbp.kva.se; International Human Dimensions Program on Global Environmental Change (IHDP) Internet site: www.ihdp.org)
[B. L. Turner II, R. H. Moss, and D. L. Skole. eds. Relating Land Use and Global Land-Cover Change: a Proposal for an IGBP-HDP Core Program. Joint IGBP Report No. 24/IHDP Report No. 5. Stockholm, Sweden: International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, 1993; B. L. Turner II, D. L. Skole, Steven Sanderson, Günther Fischer, Loise Fresco and Rik Leemans. eds. Land Use and Land-Cover Change: Science/Research Plan. Joint IGBP Report No. 35/IHDP Report No. 7. Stockholm, Sweden: International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, 1995; Scientific Steering Committee and International Project Office of LUCC, edited by C. Nunes and J. I. Augé. Land-Use and Land-Cover Change Implementation Strategy. Joint IGBP Report No. 48/IHDP Report No. 10. Stockholm, Sweden: International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, 1999.]
Twenty-seventh International Geographical Congress, the third to be convened in the United States, meets August 9-14 in Washington, D.C. Thirteen guidebooks to various regions of North America and the Caribbean Islands are prepared in conjunction with the meeting. Two previous International Geographical Congresses met in the United States, in 1904 and 1952.
[Proceedings. Washington: Organizing Committee, 27th International Geographical Congress, 1992; Technical Program Abstracts. Washington: Organizing Committee, 27th International Geographical Congress, 1992; and Touring North American series of guidebooks-Anthony R. de Souza. ed. The Capital Region: Day Trips in Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington, D.C.; John R. Borchert. Megalopolis: Washington, D.C. to Boston; P. P. Karen and Wilford A. Bladen. Across the Appalachians: Washington, D.C. to Lake Michigan; Sam B. Hilliard. The South Revisited: Forty Years of Change; Louis De Vorsey, Jr. and Marion J. Rice. The Plantation South: Atlanta to Savannah and Charleston; John C. Hudson. Crossing the Heartland: Chicago to Denver; Cotton Mather, P. P. Karan, and George F. Thompson. Beyond the Great Divide: Denver to the Grand Canyon; Martin S. Kenzer, Douglas J. Sherman, Robert A. Rundstrom, and Bernard O. Bauer. California Landscapes: Los Angeles, Big Sur, San Francisco, Yosemite, and Death Valley; Larry Ford and Ernie Griffin. Southern California Extended: Las Vegas to San Diego and Los Angeles; George E. Stuart and Winfield Swanson. Ancient Mexico: Aztec, Mixtec, and Maya Landscapes; Thomas D. Boswell and Dennis Conway. The Caribbean Islands: Endless Geographical Diversity; Dean Louder. ed. The Heart of French Canada: from Ottawa to Quebec City; J. K. Stager and Harry Swain. Canada North: Journey to the High Arctic. all New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992. Cartografia del Mondo: International Map and Book Exhibition. Washington: Organizing Committee, 27th International Geographical Congress, 1992; [Proceedings. Washington: Organizing Committee, 27th International Geographical Congress, 1992; Technical Program Abstracts. Washington: Organizing Committee, 27th International Geographical Congress, 1992; Cartografia del Mondo: International Map and Book Exhibition. Washington: Organizing Committee, 27th International Geographical Congress, 1992; and Touring North American series of guidebooks]
Looking at Earth, a permanent exhibit of the uses of aerial imagery - photographs from balloons and from space, remote sensing imagery from satellites, etc. - to improve our understanding of Earth opens in Washington, D.C. It permanently occupies an entire gallery of the Air and Space Museum, the Smithsonian Institutions’ most-visited museum, on the Mall in Washington, D.C.
[ www.nasm.si.edu/nasm/NASMexh.html; Priscilla Strain and Frederick Engle. Looking at Earth. Atlanta, GA: Turner Publications, 1992.]
The North Carolina Geographer, the annual scholarly journal of the North Carolina Geographical Society begins publication. Its publication continues to the present.
A Scholar’s Guide to Geographical Writing on the American and Canadian Past, by Michael P. Conzen, Thomas A. Rumney, and Graeme Wynn, is published by the University of Chicago Press in 1993. The volume is both a landmark publication in, and benchmark of, historical geography scholarship in the United States and Canada. It updates and documents the dramatic expansion of scholarship in historical geography since issuance of previous accounts (McManis, Grim, Clark), and provides an explicitly geographic counterpoint to the well-established and essential general guides to the scholarly works of American historians (American Historical Association, Freidel et al.).
Two overview essays, by Conzen – The Historical Impulse in Geographical Writing about the United States, 1850-1990 (pp. 3-90), and Wynn – The Writing of Canadian Historical Geography (pp. 91-124), situate geographers’ historical accounts of this corner of the world within the broader realm of geographic scholarship. Thoroughly documented, they provide essential starting points to this body of scholarly research. The guide’s categorized listing of some 10,000 works of geographical writing on the United States and Canada emphatically demonstrates the geographer’s way of accounting for transformations that occur from one historic period to the next. The works are categorized geographically – country, region, and province/state – and by some twenty-five topics within each geographic unit.
[Michael P. Conzen, Thomas A. Rumney, and Graeme Wynn. A Scholar’s Guide to Geographical Writing on the American and Canadian Past. Geography Research Paper No. 235. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993; Douglas R. McManis. Historical Geography of the United States: a Bibliography, excluding Alaska and Hawaii. Ypsilanti, MI: Eastern Michigan University Press, 1965; Ronald E. Grim. Historical Geography of the United States: a Guide to Information Sources. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Co., 1982; Andrew H. Clark. Historical Geography. In Preston E. James and Clarence F. Jones. eds. American Geography: Inventory and Prospect. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press for Association of American Geographers, 1954, pp. 70-105; American Historical Association. Guide to Historical Literature. 2 vols. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995 (1961, 1927); American Historical Association. Writings on American History. 1902-03 and irregular thereafter; Frank Freidel et al. Harvard Guide to American History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974 (1967, 1954, 1912).]
Geography for Life: National Geography Standards 1994 provides a national set of voluntary standards for the teaching of geography in elementary and secondary schools. The report is prepared in response to widespread public demands for new standards in elementary and secondary education in general and geography specifically by the Geography Education Standards Project, a joint effort of the American Geographical Society, Association of American Geographers, National Council for Geographic Education, and National Geographic Society.
[Geography Education Standards Project. Geography for Life: National Geography Standards 1994. Washington: National Geographic Society, 1994.]
Open GIS Consortium, Inc. (OGC) is established to make geospatial information and its processing more useful and more widely available. It grows out of experiences within the federal government during the early 1980s by the spatial analysis software development group headed by Bill Goran, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USACERL), at Champaign, Illinois. This group assists the U.S. Department of Defense in developing and applying geographic information system (GIS) technologies to the management of military installations and to various civil works applications through the creation of a public-domain open-source UNIX-based geospatial analysis software termed Geographic Resource and Analysis Support System (GRASS). A GRASS Interagency Steering Committee (GIASC) is formed in 1990 to support and coordinate development of GRASS throughout the federal government. By the early 1990s, users of this software number in the thousands. Building on this experience, the Open GIS Consortium is created to promote the benefits of an open system approach to handling geospatial information outside the federal government user community as well.
Earth 2U, Exploring Geography, organized by the Smithsonian Institution’s Traveling Exhibit Service (SITES) and the National Geographic Society, is a self-contained exhibit that is designed to be portable and displayed at museums throughout the country. The interactive exhibit is targeted primarily to 6-12 year olds and consists of six quasi-independent sections that address the question, “What is Geography?” The six sections are - Population, Landscape/Landshapes, Everyday Things, Forces of Nature, Exploration and Adventure, and Tools and Techniques.
A smaller exhibit, Earth 2U, Exploring Geography, Version II, includes three of the original six sections. During the next five years, the two exhibits are shown at 50 sites. A compact disk (CD) version of the exhibit is created by Macmillan Software Publishing. The two exhibits spend years traveling from one museum to another.
The Geo Quiz is a feature of The World, a daily international news program broadcast on public radio (PBS) stations from the program's debut in 1996. The Geo Quiz is a geography quiz that offers a set of clues about some specific place in the world at one point during the half-hour program and provides the answer somewhat later in the same program. The World is co-produced by the BBC World Service, Public Radio International (PRI), and station WGBH in Boston. The program is also available online, complete with photographs and music, at www.theworld.org.
Southwestern Geographer, a scholarly journal of the Southwestern Division of the Association of American Geographers (SWAAG), begins publication. Its publication continues to the present.
The scholarly journal Applied Geographic Studies begins publication. Its publication continues through 1999, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Summer 1999).
Perry School in Eire, Pennsylvania creates the nation’s first geography theme-based elementary school curriculum when it utilizes geography to integrate the standard elementary-school (k-6)-math, science, history, writing, reading, spelling, and physical education. The school has its own Geography Learning Laboratory, a geographic motto-“Geography Takes You Everywhere!”, and a geographic mascot-Toby the Traveling Bear, which has visited the White House in Washington, D.C. and five countries.
Geography in the form of ‘information about geography’ becomes an electronic presence in the expanding cyberspace world through creation of Geography at About.com, one of a family of Internet sites managed by About.com. The site has since grown to incorporate over 2,000 individual pages of articles, facts, quizzes, and discussion devoted to geography and receives over 2 million visits a month.
The world's largest globe is created by DeLorme, an American publisher of maps and mapping software. It is erected at the firm's headquarters in Yarmouth, Maine. Constructed at the scale of 1:1,000,000 (one inch equals about 16 miles), its diameter is just over 41 feet. Geographic features depicted on its cloud-free image of Earth include topography represented with shaded relief, bathymetry with color, vegetation cover with color, and major roads and urban settlement.
Several immense globes existed previously. Among them was one of similar size by Delanglard termed Géorama, built in Paris in 1844, and one erected by James Wyld, Geographer to the Queen, in London that was 60 feet in diameter and stood for a decade (1851-61). Such large globes provide us, "learned or unlearned, the direct study of geography on spherical surfaces" that French geographer Élisée Reclus (1830-1905) declared "absolutely essential" a century ago, "at a time when every morning and evening newspaper brings us news from all parts of the world; when every one of us, even the least fortunate, is fed and clothed with productions of all continents and seas; when we all have friends across both oceans in the antipodal countries...Now Globes must be temples themselves, as by the magnificence or proportions as by the beauty of workmanship and the scrupulous care of scientific drawing. In sight of such constructions, people must feel grave and respectful, not only because those monuments consecrated to science will partake of its majesty, but also because they will belong to all men, without any privilege for race or nationality, and will help to strengthen within us the feeling that we are one and the same family" (Reclus, 403, 406).
[DeLorme, www.delorme.com; Alfred R. Wallace. The Proposed Gigantic Model of the Earth. The Living Age 209 (13 June 1896): 692-700 (reprinted from The Contemporary Review); Élisée Reclus. A Great Globe. Geographical Journal 12 (1898): 401-409; Gary S. Dunbar. Élisée Reclus and the Great Globe. Scottish Geographical Magazine 90 (April 1974): 57-66.]
The twenty-four volume American National Biography is prepared to serve as America's authoritative biographical dictionary under the sponsorship of the American Council of Learned Societies. It updates and broadens the coverage of the earlier Dictionary of American Biography (original 20 vols., 1926-37) by providing nearly 17,500 biographical sketches. Biographies for persons identified as geographers include-Cyrus C. Adams, Wallace W. Atwood, Oliver E. Baker, Isaiah Bowman, Ralph H. Brown, Charles P. Daly, William M. Davis, Henry Gannett, Arnold H. Guyot, Richard Hakluyt, Ellsworth Huntington, Mark S. W. Jefferson, Jedidiah Morse, Edward Robinson, Carl O. Sauer, Ellen C. Semple, Nathaniel S. Shaler, Henry S. Tanner, George M. Wheeler, and Douglas W. Johnson (as geomorphologist). Persons identified as cartographers include-Abraham Bradley, Jr., Nelson H. Darton, William G. De Brahm, Simeon De Witt, William H. Emory, Lewis Evans, Moses Greenleaf, Thomas Harriot, Augustine Herrman, Thomas Hutchins, Arthur Keith, Edward M. and Richard H. Kern, Eusebio F. Kino, Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues, J. Peter Lesley, Bernard Romans, Henry S. Tanner, David Thompson, and John Wood. Other geographers and persons who made significant contributions to geography include-Gilbert H. Grosvenor, George Perkins Marsh, Mathew Fontaine Maury, Paul A. Siple, Ralph S. Tarr, Emma H. Willard, and William C. Woodbridge.
[John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes. eds. American National Biography. 24 vols. New York: Oxford University Press for the American Council of Learned Societies, 1999.]
The United States Mint begins issuing quarter ($0.25) coins to commemorate the 50 states. The coins include a common design on the obverse (heads) side, and different state-specific designs on the reverse (tails) side. The program represents the first time the U.S. Mint gives preference to sub-national images on coins minted by the federal government. The 50 different coins commemorate events, landscape elements, or other state-specific features chosen by the states. Designs for the reverse side of several coins include maps and the State of New York's coin includes one of the smallest state raised relief maps every produced (1.43 x 1.91 cm.). The program will issue five new coins each year through 2008 in the order that states ratified the Constitution or became a state. School lesson plans are prepared by the U.S. Mint for grades kindergarten through six that feature geography, history, and math and are linked to national education standards, including those issued for geography in 1994.
[U.S. Mint, www.usmint.gov]
The scholarly journal Tourism Geographies begins publication in 1999. Its publication continues to the present.
The five best-selling textbooks used in college introductory courses in human geography are - Terry G. Jordan-Bychkov and Mona Domosh. The Human Mosaic: a Thematic Introduction to Cultural Geography. 8th ed. New York: Longman, 1999; Paul Knox and Sallie A. Marston. Places and Regions in Global Context: Human Geography. (2nd ed. 2001) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998; Harm J. de Blij and Alexander B. Murphy. Human Geography: Culture, Society, and Space. 6th ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1999; James M. Rubenstein. The Cultural Landscape: an Introduction to Human Geography. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999; Jerome D. Fellman, Arthur Getis and Judith Getis. Human Geography: Landscapes of Human Activity. 6th ed. New York: ACB McGraw-Hill, 1999.
Introductory human geography classes are commonly offered to first-year and second-year college students.
[Garth Andrew Myers. Introductory Human Geography Textbooks Representations of Africa. Professional Geographer 53 (November 2001): 522-532.
Advanced Placement Human Geography courses are offered in North American high schools for the first time in the fall of 2000. The first Advanced Placement Human Geography examinations, administered at the close of the 2000-01 academic year, are taken by over 4,000 students. With this programmatic launching, geography joins the group of 19 subject areas and 33 college-level Advanced Placement courses that are offered highly motivated high-school students in the Advanced Placement Program of the College Board.
The initial offering of AP Human Geography was preceded by years of lobbying by secondary school and college teachers of geography, most notably James Marran, New Trier High School, Evanston, Illinois. Inclusion of human geography among AP courses offered in 2000-01 follows a progression that was launched when members of the Educational Testing Service convened a meeting on behalf of the College Board at the Association of American Geographers’ annual meeting at San Francisco, 1994. This meeting led to a formal assessment of interest in a geography course, and the appointment of Alexander B. Murphy, University of Oregon, to chair an AP Geography Task Force for the Educational Testing Service. In March 1995, the task force recommended that AP Human Geography become the first Advanced Placement geography course offered rather than Physical Geography or World Regional Geography (the two other common first-year college geography courses), because of the greater ease of teacher preparation vis-à-vis Physical Geography and because of its more systematic emphasis vis-à-vis World Regional Geography.
The addition of AP Human Geography to the Advanced Placement Program was approved by the College Board in spring 1996. Shortly thereafter the Educational Testing Service established the AP Human Geography Development Committee, which would serve through 2000, with Alexander B. Murphy, (chair), Adrian Bailey, Dartmouth College, David A. Lanegran, Macalester College, Larry R. Ford, San Diego State University, Daniel D. Arreola, Arizona State University, Douglas L. Johnson, Clark University, Isobel Stevenson, Johnston High School, Austin, Texas, Martha B. Sharma, National Cathedral School, Washington, D.C., and John Trites, Horton District High School, Wolfville, Nova Scotia; and later as members rotated off, Mona Domosh, Florida Atlantic University, Barbara E. McDade, University of Florida, and Debra Lange, A&M Consolidated High School, College Station, Texas. At the conclusion of the development phase, David A. Lanegran takes over as chair of the Educational Testing Service’s continuing AP Human Geography Committee.
[www.collegeboard.com/ap; Joan Clemons and Tom L. McKnight. Teacher’s Guide—AP Human Geography. Princeton, NJ: College Entrance Examination Board and Educational Testing Service, 1999; Alexander B. Murphy, guest editor. Teaching Advanced Placement Human Geography. Journal of Geography 99 (May-August 2000): 93-172.]
Gilbert Fowler White, of the University of Colorado in Boulder, Colorado, receives the National Medal of Science, the nation's highest science honor. White is honored for outstanding leadership and scientific contributions to geography and environmental sciences, and for helping shape the nation's policies on flood plains, water use, and environmental disasters for more than five decades. He is the second geographer to receive the National Medal of Science. (see National Medal of Science entry at 1991) Gilbert White also receives the Public Welfare Medal from the National Academy of Sciences in 2000. It is the highest honor bestowed by the National Academy of Sciences upon a member of the Academy, and honors an individual for extraordinary use of science in the public interest. White receives the award for his fundamental contributions to our understanding of the interactions between the environment and society and the management of environmental hazards over a period of sixty years.
[Gilbert F. White. Human Adjustment to Floods: a Geographical Approach to the Flood Problem in the United States. Chicago: Private edition distributed by University of Chicago Libraries, 1942, and as Research Paper No. 29. Chicago: Department of Geography, University of Chicago, 1945; Gilbert F. White. ed. Natural Hazards: Local, National, Global. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974; Robert W. Kates and Ian Burton. eds. Geography, Resources and Environment: Selected Writings of Gilbert F. White and Geography, Resources, and Environment: Themes from the Work of Gilbert F. White. 2 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986; James L. Westcoat, Jr. Common Themes in the Work of Gilbert White and John Dewey: a Pragmatic Appraisal. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82 (December 1992): 587-607.]
The 26-volume and 17,000-page International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences provides an account of social and behavioral science research domains at entry into the twenty-first century. It updates the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences of 1968, which accounted for transformations that occurred during the 1960s, and provides a 70-year-on perspective to social science’s foundational post-World War I era, represented by the Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences of 1930-35. Taken together, these three landmark publications provide a remarkable comparative accounting of the development of the social and behavioral sciences in general, and of the human and human-environment traditions within geography more specifically across seven-plus decades.
The editors justify the current enterprise in terms of – updating the two previous encyclopedias; providing a form of quality control in the age of rapidly expanding accessibility to information via the Internet; and several science-specific ones – the astonishing growth and further specialization of scientific knowledge since the 1960s; rapid development of interdisciplinary fields; expanded interest in public policy and applications; internationalization of research; the impact of computers and the information revolution on theory and practice; and newly developed connections between social and behavioral sciences and between social and biological life sciences.
This extraordinary set of essays, with perhaps a hundred or more articles devoted to topics of explicit concern to geographers, enables readers to capture the current state of scholarly research in geography as does no other source. It provides a breathtaking account of geography’s contemporary scientific and scholarly horizons. These titles and author names suggest its richness – Geography by Ron J. Johnston, History of Geographic Thought and History of Spatial Thinking in the Social Sciences by Paul Claval, Geographic (Geography) Education by Roger M. Downs, Geographic Learning in Children by David Stea, Place in Geography by Ed Relph, Power of Place by Delores Hayden, Spatial Equity by Richard L. Morrill, Locational Conflict (NIMBY) by Robert W. Lake, Political Geography by Alexander B. Murphy, Geopolitics by Saul B. Cohen, Regional Geography by G. Wood, Region: Geographical by M. B. Pudup, Human-Environment Relationships by William B. Meyer, Human-Environment Relationships: Prehistoric by Karl W. Butzer, Resource Geography by G. Bridge, Geoarchaeology by M. I. Weisler, Humanistic Geography by Anne Buttimer, Behavioral Geography by Reginald G. Golledge, Spatial Cognition by D. R. Montello, Cognitive Maps by R. Kitchin, Spatial Decision Support System by Gerard Rushton, Space and Social Theory in Geography by Barney Wharf, Cultural Geography by Geraldine Pratt, Economic Geography by Edward J. Malecki, Social Geography by S. Bowlby, Urban Geography by Rita Schneider-Sliwa, Urban Systems in Geography by Peter Hall, Rural Geography by J. Little, Geodemographics by J. Goss, Spatial Interaction by Edward J. Taaffe, Spatial Interaction Models by A. S. Fotheringham, Time-Geography by P. Glennie and N. Thrift, Historical Geography by B. Graham, Qualitative Methods in Geography by I. Dyck, Cartography by Judy M. Olson, History of Cartography by G. Malcolm Lewis, Cartographic Visualization by M. J. Kraak, Spatial Data by Stephen C. Guptill, Spatial Data Infrastructure by David Rhind, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) by Michael F. Goodchild, Geographic Information Systems: Critical Approaches by Eric Sheppard, Spatial Analysis in Geography by M. M. Fischer, Spatial Statistical Methods by L. M. Berliner, Measures of Spatial Association by Arthur Getis, Spatial Autocorrelation by Robert P. Haining, Analysis of Spatial Pattern by Barry Boots, Postmodernism in Geography by Edward W. Soja. (see Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences entry at 1930, and International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences entry at 1968)
[Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes. editors-in-chief. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. 26 vols. Amsterdam, London, New York: Elsevier Science, 2001.]
Doing Fieldwork is issued as a special edition of Geographical Review in 2001. It provides a contemporary update on the commitment of geographers to the importance of direct on-site acquisition of scientific and supporting information.
Fieldwork, field research, field experience; geographers being ‘in the field’ or serving as field researchers; the high praise associated with the ‘field man’ accolade that placed the nineteenth-century geographer second only to ‘explorer’ (defined perhaps as a field man who travels to places others have yet to witness); ‘ground truthing’ remotely sensed imagery-information from space; field trips conducted in conjunction with classroom instruction as part of geography education or in conjunction with professional and scholarly meetings; and the attendant methods for obtaining geographic information first hand - all exist as an integral part of geography in America throughout its history.
First-hand knowledge of Earth’s physical and human geographies from direct observation receives varying levels of attention from society at large and in the practice of geography education. The importance placed upon direct first-hand experiential learning experiences derived from being in the field remains, however, a fundamental and constant aspect of seemingly ever-changing education philosophies. Its contemporary importance, for members of society at large when aspatial non-place ‘understanding’ continues its ascent, and for geography in bringing its understanding of processes played out as place-specific events and phenomena to the rest of society, remains unquestioned.
[Dydia DeLyser and Paul F. Storrs. eds. Doing Fieldwork. Geographical Review 91 (January and April 2001): 1-508 (entire issue); Wellington D. Jones and Carl O. Sauer. Outline for Field Work in Geography. Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 47 (1915): 520-525; Carl O. Sauer. Mapping the Utilization of the Land. Geographical Review 8 (July 1919): 47-54; Carl O. Sauer. The Survey Method in Geography and Its Objectives. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 14 (1924): 17-33; Derwent S. Whittlesey. Devices for Accumulating Geographic Data in the Field. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 17 (June 1927): 72-78; Charles M. Davis. Field Techniques. In Preston E. James and Clarence F. Jones. eds. American Geography: Inventory and Prospect. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press for Association of American Geographers, 1954. Pp. 496-529; Robert S. Platt. Field Study in American Geography: the Development of Theory and Method Exemplified by Selections. Research Paper No. 61. Chicago: University of Chicago, Department of Geography, 1959; Preston E. James and Cotton Mather. The Role of Periodic Field Conferences in the Development of Geographical Ideas in the United States. Geographical Review 67 (October 1977): 446-461; Kenneth E. Corey, A. David Hill, John Fraser Hart, Neil E. Salisbury, and Peirce F. Lewis. Field Training in Geography. Commission on College Geography Technical Paper No. 1. Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers, 1968.]
Kingsley E. Haynes, University Professor of Public Policy and dean of the School of Public Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, is honored as the first geographer to be elected a fellow to the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA). The National Academy of Public Administration is an independent organization chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1984 to-evaluate the performance of evolving federal and other governmental programs, examine emerging public administration issues, assess the effectiveness of proposed public programs and policies, advise on relationships among federal, state, regional, and local governments, and demonstrate a commitment to the highest professional standards of ethics and scholarship. Persons honored as Academy fellows include academic scholars, elected officials at all levels of government, diplomats, and business executives. In fulfilling its charter’s mandate to address relevant governance issues, the Academy issues numerous committee reports, including the influential Geographic Information for the 21st Century: Building a Strategy for the Nation (1998).